難単攻略

難しめ英単語にはまってます。現在、英検1級単語問題独断予想中。的中率いまいちながら、懲りずに続けてます。
上級1000英単語を学ぶためのテキスト「難単攻略」も見ていただけるとうれしい。

来週お休みしますごあいさつ (2017/9/8)


難単攻略 ウェブ版

(音も全部入りました。更に音声をダウンロードできるようにするなど、使いやすく改良予定)  (2016/3/7)

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philanthropy [filǽnθrəpi] (11) nU 慈善
philanthropic [fìlənθrɑ́pik] (16) a 慈善の、情け深い
philanthropist [filǽnθrəpist] (14) nC 慈善家

 

語源 (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
Word Origin early 17th cent.: via late Latin from Greek philanthrōpia, from philanthrōposman-loving’, from phileinto love’ + anthrōpos ‘human being’.
ギリシャ語 philanthrōpia philanthrōpos 人を愛すること」 ← philein愛する」 + anthrōpos人間
他の phil
philology [filɑ́lədʒi] (18) n 文献学
philosophy [fəlɑ́səfi] (4) n 哲学、原理、人生観
他の anthrop
anthropoid [ǽnθrəpɔ̀id]  (20) n 類人の
anthropology [æ̀nθrəpɑ́lədʒi] (7) n 人類学
anthropomorphic [æ̀nθrəpəmɔ́:rfɪk] (13) a 擬人観の

 

意味 (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
[uncountable] the practice of helping the poor and those in need, especially by giving money
Hospitals were built as a result of private philanthropy and government intervention.
貧しい人々や困っている人々を、特にお金を与えて助ける行為

 

例文 (Longman)
▪ A minority or Liberals attacked the principle of state welfare, arguing that the state should rather encourage self-help and philanthropy.
▪ All that development and philanthropy disguised hard commercial policies.
▪ And I began to discover that his philanthropy was no longer casual now, but constant and systematic.
▪ Born and raised in San Francisco, the 71-year-old Rosenberg has been preaching philanthropy his entire adult life.
▪ The myth of philanthropy is quickly discredited by a realistic look at how older people lead their lives.

 

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難しめの語

 

dejected [didʒéktid] (12) a 意気消沈した
If you are dejected, you feel miserable or unhappy, especially because you have just been disappointed by something. adj (=despondent)
Everyone has days when they feel dejected or down. (Collins COBUILD)
特に何かに失望したばかりで、みじめで不幸であると感じている

 

despondent [dispɑ́ndənt] (12) a 失望した
despondent implies a deep dejection arising from a conviction of the uselessness of further effort. <•despondent about yet another rejection> (Merriam-Webster)
更なる努力が役に立たないと確信したことによる深い落胆を示唆」

 

doleful [dóʊlf(ə)l] (24) a (表情・態度などが)悲しみに満ちた
very sad
a doleful expression/face/song
a doleful looking man
 (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
とても悲しい

 

downcast [dáunkæ̀st] (12) a 1.がっかりした、2.(視線が)下に向いた
1 adj If you are downcast, you are feeling sad and without hope. usu v-link ADJ
Barbara looked increasingly downcast as defeat loomed. (Collins COBUILD)
悲しく望みがないと感じている

 

glum [glʌ́m] (11) a ふさぎ込んだ
Glum describes a depressed, spiritless condition or manner, usually temporary rather than habitual: a glum shrug of the shoulders; a glum, hopeless look in his eye. (Random House)
落込んで、様子や態度に元気がない、通常いつものことではなく一時的

 

lugubrious [ləgúːbriəs] (26) a literary (時に滑稽)ひどく悲しげな
very sad and serious – sometimes used humorously
  ▪ his lugubrious tear-stained face (Longman)
とても悲しく深刻な、時に滑稽に使われる

 

mournful [mɔ́ːrnfl] (9) a 悲しげな
mournful especially literary looking or sounding sad :
  ▪ the dog's big mournful eyes
  ▪ the mournful sound of the church bell
  ▪ a mournful expression
 (Longman)

悲しそうに見えたり聞こえたりする

 

pensive [pénsiv] (12) a (悲しかったり心配で)考え込んだ、物思いに沈んだ
If you are pensive, you are thinking deeply about something, especially something that worries you slightly. adj (=thoughtful)

He looked suddenly sombre, pensive. (Collins COBUILD)
特に少し心配させることについて深く考えている

 

plaintive [pléintiv] (12) a (声・音などが)悲しげな
sounding sad, especially in a weak complaining way
a plaintive cry/voice (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
特に少し不満そうに悲しげに聞こえる

 

rueful [rúːfəl] (11) a 悔やんでいる、悲しんでいる
If someone is rueful, they feel or express regret or sorrow in a quiet and gentle way. LITERARY adj
He shook his head and gave me a rueful smile.... (Collins COBUILD)
静かに穏かに後悔や悲しみを感じたり表現していたりする

 

wistful [wís(t)fl] (10) a (昔を思ったり、何かが得られなかったりして)物思いに沈んだ
wistful especially literary looking a little sad and thoughtful, because you wish that the situation was different :
  ▪ She looked at him with a wistful smile. (Longman)
状況が違ってたらいいのにと思って、少し悲しげで物思いにふけっているように見える

 

woebegone [wóʊbɪgɔ̀ːn] (12) a 悲嘆にくれた
Woebegone suggests grief or wretchedness, especially as reflected in a person's appearance: "His sorrow ... made him look ... haggard and ... woebegone" (George du Maurier). (American Heritage)
悲嘆や惨めさが外見に出ている

 

参照 (類義語比較)
American Heritage sad
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sad
American Heritage pathetic
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pathetic
Longman sad
http://1.vndic.net/index.php?word=sad&dict=longman_en
Merriam-Webster despondent
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/despondent
Merriam-Webster glum
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/glum
Merriam-Webster pathetic
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pathetic
Random House glum
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/glum?s=t

 

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簡単めの語

 

1   very sad and without hope
She felt very depressed about the future. (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
depressed [diprést] (6) 「とても悲しく望みがない

 

gloomy looking or sounding sad and without hope – used about people, places, and weather :
  ▪ Why are you all looking so gloomy?
  ▪ the gloomy immigration office
  ▪ a gloomy afternoon in February
 (Longman)

gloomy [glúːmi] (5) 「悲しく望みがないように見えたり思えたりする、人・場所・天気について使われる

 

heartbroken extremely sad because of sth that has happened; He was heartbroken when she left him.  (Oxford Learner's Thesaurus)

heartbroken [hɑ́rtbròʊkən] (13) 「何か起ったことで極めて悲しい

 

very sad or making you feel sadness
melancholy thoughts/memories
The melancholy song died away.
 (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
melancholy [mélənkɑ̀li] (7) 「とても悲しいか悲しみを感じさせる

 

1 very unhappy or uncomfortable
We were cold, wet and thoroughly miserable.
Don't look so miserable!
She knows how to make life miserable for her employees.
 (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
miserable [mízərəbl] (4) 「とても不幸で心地よくない

 

sad not happy :
  ▪ She felt sad as she waved goodbye.
  ▪ a sad and lonely figure
  ▪ a sad face
  ▪ a sad film
 (Longman)
sad [sǽd] (1) 「しあわせでない

 

very sad
 her sorrowful eyes  (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
sorrowful [sɑ́rəfl] (7) 「とても悲しい

 

▪unhappy sad, especially for a long time – used about people and periods of time :
  ▪ I was unhappy at school.
  ▪ an unhappy childhood
  ▪ He's obviously a deeply unhappy person.
 (Longman)
unhappy [ʌnhǽpi] (2) 「特に長い時間悲しい、人、期間について使われる

 

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pensive [pénsiv] (12) a (悲しかったり心配で)考え込んだ、物思いに沈んだ

 

語源 (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
Word Origin late Middle English: from Old French pensif, -ive, from penserthink’, from Latin pensareponder’, frequentative of pendereweigh’.
古フランス語 pensif, -ive penser考える」 ← ラテン語 pensare 熟考する」, frequentative(反復動詞) of pendere重さを量る

 

意味 (Oxford Advanced Learner's)
thinking deeply about something, especially because you are sad or worried
a pensive mood
to look pensive

She sat with a pensive expression on her face.
特に悲しかったり心配だったりして、深く何かを考えている

 

例文 (Longman)
▪ She appeared pensive and uneasy after the visit.
▪ He was a suspicious cat, wary of people getting pensive.
▪ The cover art accurately reflects the content, which is often pensive, delicate and private.
▪ The expression on Vologsky's face was too serious and pensive for what he had in mind.
▪ You may, if you don't like trades unions, grow mildly pensive.

 

類義語
「悲しい/げな」の類義語は次回

 

余談
「ハリー・ポッター」シリーズに出てくる記憶を見ることのできる装置「憂いの篩いPensieve は、 pensive と同音異義語で pensive  + sieve篩い」 で作られた単語のようです。
参照
Harry Potter Wiki
http://harrypotter.wikia.com/wiki/Pensieve
Pottermore
https://www.pottermore.com/writing-by-jk-rowling/pensieve

 

 

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pedantic [pidǽntik] (12) a disapproving (規則や学問などで)細部にこだわる、杓子定規な
pedant [pédnt] (25) n disapproving (教育の場で)細部にこだわる人
pedantry [pédntri] (25) n disapproving 細部にこだわること

 

語源 (Oxford Advanced Learner's pedant)
Word Origin
late 16th cent.: from French pédant, from Italian pedante, perhaps from the first element of Latin paedogogus, from Greek paidagōgos, denoting a slave who accompanied a child to school (from pais, paid- ‘boy’ + agōgosguide’).
pedant ← フランス語 pédant ← イタリア語 pedante ← ラテン語 paedogogus ← ギリシャ語 paidagōgos子供を学校に連れて行く奴隷」 ← pais, paid- 「少年」 + agōgos ガイド
他の ped- 子供」単語
pedagogy [pédəgòudʒi] (12) n formal 教育学
encyclopedic [ensàikləpíːdik] (14) a 1.百科事典の、博学な
pediatrician [pìːdiətríʃən] (12*) n 小児科医 (*レベルはWeblio)

 

意味 (Collins COBUILD)
If you think someone is pedantic, you mean that they are too concerned with unimportant details or traditional rules, especially in connection with academic subjects. adj (disapproval)
His lecture was so pedantic and uninteresting.
特に学術的な問題との関係で、大切でない細部や伝統的な規則にこだわりすぎる

 

例文 (Longman)
▪ Don't be so pedantic - does it really matter if I don't pronounce it right?
▪ The booklet that accompanies the CD is informative and scholarly, without being pedantic.
▪ The papers wre stacked with pedantic neatness on his desk.
▪ It demonstrates that more can be achieved by bringing together a mass of illustration than many a pedantic thesis.
▪ To commonplace actions he brought a special pedantic awkwardness.

 

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