通訳案内士試験道場 地理・歴史・一般常識・通訳案内実務ブログ
  • 10Jul
    • The biggest problem in modern Japanese society

      The biggest problem in modern Japanese society A lack of communication between people is significant issue in Japan today. It is true that high technology is useful and helps our life easier. For example we can communicate anytime and anywhere thanks to SNS. However, it is said we have less opportunity to communicate deeply and closely instead. Sadly it leads to crimes. Recently more aged people tend to shoplift. It is not rare. It is often happening around Japan. It is not because they are poor but lonely. They feel lonely and are trying to get attention to society. I think this is not a matter that can be ignored. If you want to feel people’s warm herat, I recommend to visit “あじき路地(Ajiki Roji)’.Roji is strees in Japanese. There are some shops and studios in the machiya house along the street. Young creators are living there and selling their handmade products.I have once joined the Obanzai (Kyoto homemade dishes) cooking class. In the cooking class you can enjoy communicate with other participants though cooking. The process is interesting that you can feel teamwork at the cooking class so that each participant can communicate. After cooking we enjoy chatting over chabudai(old style low dining table) eating what we cooked. The experience reminds us good old times in Japan. It let us know something important we should remember.

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    • A tourist attraction which is going to be popula

      A tourist attraction which is going to be popular among foreigners in the futureI would like to recommend a play called “gear”. There are some reasons I highly recommend the place.Speaking of watching plays in foreign countries, it sounds difficult to understand the stories. But do not worry, “Gear” has a story but it is nonverbal play so that everyone can enjoy the performance. The performance is consisted of pantomime, break dance, magic, and juggling. Actors at the “Gear” used to play at Cirque de Soleil or famous professional performer. They are strictly trained and they show us perfect performance by body movement and facial expressions. You will never get bored with this. Second reason I recommend the play is smallness of the theatre. The capacity is 200 people. Compare to general theatres, it is very small, but it is cozy and good. And it is also exciting to see because you are close to actors. Thirdly, you can experience the Japanese high technology at the theatre. It is produced with magical lights and images and art and lights are combined. I am sure you are impressed with these technologies. The “Gear” was born in Kyoto and is still performed today, and it is easy access as it is located in the middle of downtown area. It is played at night time so you can enjoy after sightseeing outside like temple and shrines.

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  • 28Jun
    • The state of foreign visitors in my hometown

      My hometown is Shiga, which is famous for the biggest lake in Japan called ‘Lake Biwa’, but actually it is not popular among foreign tourists.According to the research, the number of the foreign visitors in Shiga is 144,000 through a year, and it is the 34th place in Japan.When I used to live in Australia, my friends often asked me where I am from. But nobody knew about Shiga even never heard of the name. They only knew the famous big city like Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, so I always said my hometown is next to Kyoto. Is Shiga boring city? No. Thanks to the good location, we can go to Kyoto easily. JR train brings you in 10 mins from Ostu station to Kyoto station. It will be able to resolve the shortage of accommodations. Kyoto is too popular and has serious problems about lack of accommodations. Shiga has many good hotels and ryokans, and it is even cheaper price.The problem is Shiga is not famous. We need to take actions to get more tourists know Shiga. Hotels and Ryokans need to be widely advertised online so that people around the world find, and then emphasize how easy and convenient access it is from Shiga. In Shiga there are many attraction spots and delicious local foods. After more foreigners stay in Shiga near future, I am sure they notice Shiga is attractive area and worth visiting.

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    • The highest sense of beautiful sightseeing spot

      Japanese people are said to be humble and patient. I think you can feel the heart of Japan in Ryoan-ji temple. It is the site of Japan’s most famous rock garden, which attract many foreign tourists. The garden consists of fifteen rocks of various sizes placed harmoniously on a carefully-raked bed of white gravel.What is unique about this masterpiece of Japanese culture is that one of the fifteen rocks is designed to be invisible when viewed from any angle in front of the garden. The number fifteen means “perfection” or “completion” in the oriental world. 十五夜(Jyugoya) ,”jyugo” is fifteen in Japanese and “ya” is night, is translated into full moon in English as jyugo is perfect number. So the garden is said to represent no one is perfect. We Japanese have a thought that something will be broken when it is completed. There are also something interesting at the back of the garden. That is washbasin shaped old Japanese coin. You can see curved four letters on it around the water hole. The water hole is square-shaped and it looks like a kanji of mouth (口). You can make kanji with combination of mouth(口) and four letters, which is (吾唯足知). This is the message to us “I am content with I have/am”. Ryoan-ji temple attracts many visitors not only Japanese but foreigners. If you are interested in inner part of Japan, I highly recommend visiting there.

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  • 11Jun
    • tourism industries in the future

      What Japan has to do for tourism to foreign visitors is differentiation AI (Artificial Intelligence), which means real hospitality is the most important to appeal Japan.Thanks to development of the technology, it is said that 47 percent of jobs can be replaced to AI machines in 10 to 20 years.As we now face serious problems about short of labors, it would be very helpful to solve the problems. However, if everything is done by AI like check-in, room services, and tour information when your travel for example, it is going to be boring.Of course trying the local foods and cultural experiences are important part to enjoy, but I think “people” is precious to have unforgettable memories. Actually I have touched by the tourist attractions in many countries, but things that I left the biggest impression are new friends I met there or communicating with local people. People’s heart is touched only by people not machines.In my opinion, tour guides should be an entertainer rather than service industry. Firstly you need to entertain people in front of you. Dancing and singing song are required if necessary to enjoy the guests. Guides are dedicated to do hard work how they enjoy the limited time in Japan. That is the best tour guide I guess. The hospitality will touch the guests’ heart and they may come back to Japan again to meet the guide.Tourism is amusement industry, which is not really necessary to survive our life, but “people” is the key to survive in the tourist industry.

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    • 「アイヌ民族の生活にふれるエスニックリーリズム」

      「アイヌ民族の生活にふれるエスニックリーリズム」                            松田 直樹1日目:東京から帯広空港へ→車にて、十勝川沿いに太平洋まで出て、襟裳岬を目指す。    →世界ジオパークであるアポイ岳(810M)へ向かいハイキング登山、雄大な景色と 高山植物を楽しむ。アポイとは、アイヌ語で「火のあるところ」という意味である。→平取町「二風谷アイヌ文化博物館」を見学すると共に、町営バスに乗る。        アイヌ語の案内を聞ける唯一の場所である。当日は、平取温泉に宿泊。2日目:平取から苫小牧を経由して、白老へ向かう。白老にて「アイヌ民族博物館/しらおいポロトコタン」を見学し、登別を経由し、昭和新山、洞爺湖を見学、有珠山ロープウェーにて雄大な景色を味わう。同日は登別温泉に宿泊する。3日目:小樽へ移動し、市内の小樽市博物館、北運河、旧日本郵船小樽支店、大正硝子館、旭展望台、夢二亭、北のウオール街などを見学する。その後、札幌へ移動、北海道開拓村を見学、すぐそばにある「札幌市アイヌ文化センター(サッポロピリカコタン)」を見学、同日は札幌市内に宿泊する。4日目:大通り公園、時計台、北海道同庁、北海道大学ポプラ並木、さっぽろ羊ケ丘のクラーク像などを見学し、新千歳空港へ向かい、空路帰京する。以 上

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  • 05Jun
    • 高度経済成長の理由

      El exíto del rápido desarrollo económico japonés que se realizó en los años 1960, principalmente se basa en el plan de diez años de Ikeda, el primer ministro en aquel época, para duplicar el Producto Bruto Nacional. Sin embargo, se encuentran varios factores rudimentales para cumplir dicho plan de Ikeda. Es cierto que hay distintas opiniones y análisis sobre este tema desede el punto de vista de las teorías económicas. Aquí, no contando tanto con tales estudios económicos se señala una opinión derivada básicamente del fondo histórico.Primero, se puede tratar de la masiva destrucción de plantas industriales durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. A pesar de que parezca paradójico, esta aniquilación dio gran favor a la recuperación de las nuevas fábricas utilizando las más modernas técnicas del aquel tiempo y nueva estratégia de la localización de la indústria. Es decir, se instalaron nuevas plantas de producción en las zonas costeras cercanas de los puertos donde se puede facilmente y eficientemente importar materias primas y a la vez exportar las mercancías manufacturados. Esta nueva estrategia contribuyó a gran escala a disminuir los gastos de transporte interno.En segundo lugar, Japón podía gozarse del libre comecio internacional liderado y apoyado fuertemente por los Estados Unidos. El sistema del libre comercio funcionó como un elemento esencial para el progreso económico de Japón por que como arriba mencionado, la nueva industria de Japón dependía de exportación de sus productos. Históricamente, los Estados Unidos era el único país potencial cuya industria doméstica no sufurió daños causados por la guerra, por lo que después de la guerra dominaba el economía mundial y podía mantener el libre comercio especialmente en los años 1960.En tercer lugar, el largo período de paz en el mundo disfrutado por Japón después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial dio gran contribución como un factor decisivo a la restauración económica. Bajo esta circunstancia, un país pobre en materias primas, como Japón, necesitaba un desarrollo estable de las relaciones internacionales para que se garantizara la corriente de recursos necesarios y de mercancías para la venta a los países extranjeros.También, durante el rápido crecimineto, la pólitica de Japón se mantenía muy estable contando con el llamado sistema pólitico 55. En el año 1955, se formó el Jiyuminshuto, o sea, el Partido Liberal Demócrata, el cual dominaba el poder pólitico continuamente hasta el año 1993. Gracia a este régimen, el gobierno japonés podía sostener la estrategia consistente para el desarrolloeconómico.Por fin, con el resultado del progreso y de la industria de nuevas tecnologías, la industria japonesa comenzó a concentrarase en la producción de artíclos y bienes de la más alta sofisticación tales como automobiles, aparatos eléctricos basados en circuito integral, artículos electorónicos y informáticos, productos finos de acero, etc. Este movimiento de las empresas japonesas fomentó aún más el desarrollo de la economía japonesa.

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  • 02Jun
    • World Cultural Heritage sites in Japan where the

      World Cultural Heritage sites in Japan where the most foreign visitors are satisfied withBecause of having basic culture essence of Japan, Kyoto and Nara are the places where the most foreign visitors are satisfied with. We will visit World Cultural Heritage sites in these old capitals, Kyoto and Nara.On the first day we will go to Kyoto station from Tokyo station by shinkansen. And then we will take a sightseeing tour bus to see five World Cultural Heritage sites, including Kiyomizu-dera, Ginkaku-ji, Kinkaku-ji, Ryoan-ji and Nijo Castle.・Kiyomizu-dera is well-known for its main hall with a large veranda jutting out over the hillside, and was originally built by Sakanoue Tamuramaro in 798 and rebuilt by the third Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu in 1633.・Ginkaku-ji, officially known as Jisho-ji, is a Zen Buddhist temple which was constructed by the eighth shogun of the Muromachi period, Ashikaga Yoshimasa as his mountain villa in the Eastern Hills of Kyoto. The subdue appearance of its Silver Pavilion with a beautiful sand garden represents the Zen aestheticism of wabi-sabi.・Kinkaku-ji is Golden Pavilion built on the compound of Rokuon-ji, a Zen Buddhist temple. Originally the villa of an aristocrat, it was purchased and renovated in 1397 as the political center by the third shogun of the Muromachi period, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu in the Northern Hill of Kyoto. It is a three-story building in the garden complex unique to the Muromachi period, with its top two stories covered with pure gold leaf.・Ryoan-ji, Zen Buddhist temple, was founded in 15th century. It is best known for its exquisite dry landscape garden with no trees or shrubs, which consists of 15 rocks of various sizes placed harmoniously on a carefully-raked bed of white gravel. What is unique about this masterpiece of Japanese culture based on Zen Buddhism is that one of the fifteen rocks is designed to be invisible when viewed from any angle in front of the garden.・Nijo Castle was built by Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1603 as his Kyoto residence. In the ground chamber of this historic castle, the last shogun Yoshinobu announced “Taisei Houkan,” or the return of government power to the emperor just before the Meiji Restoration in 1868.We will stay at a hotel near Kyoto station.On the second day will go to Nara Prefecture via Uji (south of Kyoto) by the sightseeing tour bus to see four World Cultural Heritage sites, including Byodo-in, Kasuga Taisha, Todai-ji and Horyu-ji.・Byodo-in in Uji, in the south of Kyoto, was originally used as a rural villa by Fujiwara Michinaga and later transformed into a Buddhist temple by his eldest son Yorimichi in 1052. The main building, the Amida Hall, which is popular known as the Phoenix Hall, was completed in the following year.・Kasuga Taisha, located at the foot of the sacred Mt. Mikasa in Nara, is a Shinto shrine built in 768 to protect the Heijo-kyo capital. This shrine features vermilion-colored pillars, wisteria flowers, and a total of 3,000 lanterns which are lit twice a year during the Mantoro Festival in February and August.・Todai-ji, located in Nara, is one of Japan’s most famous Buddhist temples. This venerable temple was originally built as the headquarters of all the Kegon sect Buddhist temples by Emperor Shomu in 728. Its Great Buddha Hall, which is one of the world’s largest wooden buildings, houses one of the world’s largest bronze statues of Buddha.・Horyu-ji, a symbol of the Asuka period Buddhism, is a long-established Buddhist temple in Ikaruga, Nara. Together with Hokki-ji temple, this venerable structure founded by Prince Shotoku is registered as a World Heritage site for its world’s oldest Buddhist monuments and the Japanese adoption of Chinese architecture. We will stay at Nara and be back to Tokyo from Nara via Kyoto by JR local line and shinkansen next day.

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  • 28May
    • 世界無形遺産「和食」

      世界無形遺産「和食」<World Intangible Cultural Heritage, “Washoku”>“Washoku” (Japanese cuisine) has recently been registered as the World's Intangible Cultural Heritage.What is “Washoku” in the first place? “Susi”,“Tenpura”,or even “Ramen”?These dishes are tangible and must not be classified as Intangible Heritage.On the homepage of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the following four points are cited as "characteristics of Washoku.○ Diverse and fresh ingredients and their taste○ Healthy diet and good balance in nutritional.○ Expression of the beauty of nature and seasons.○ Relationship with annual events such as New Year.Visit Tsukiji Market and enjoy Washoku. Tsukiji Market is the world’s largest food market where you can understand its atmosphere and also can taste Washoku.Nearby tourist spots are Hama Rikyu Garden and Tsukiji Honganji Temple.                                   徳 武世界無形遺産「和食」世界無形遺産としての和食とはいったい何でしょう。 寿司や天ぷらなのか、或いはラーメンは該当するのか。 寿司、天ぷら、ラーメンそのものは有形であるから無形遺産の概念には相当しないと思われます。農林水産省のホームページでは「和食の特徴」として以下の四点が挙げられています。○多様で新鮮な食材とその持ち味の尊重○栄養バランスに優れた健康的な食生活○自然の美しさや季節の移ろいの表現○正月などの年中行事との密接な関わりすなわち「和食」の在り方そのものが無形遺産として認定されているのでしょう。ということは、寿司、天ぷらもそれらが日本の文化や上記の特徴に即していると認識されれば世界遺産の「和食」として食することもできるのではないでしょうか。今回は世界一の食品マーケット築地市場を見学しましょう。築地市場自体は世界遺産ではありませんが、世界無形遺産の「和食」を楽しみながら、市場の雰囲気や日本の食文化を理解しましょう。市場に隣接して浜離宮恩賜庭園やユニークな形状の築地本願寺などがありますので同時に見学するのも良いでしょう。 徳 武

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    • Tour of enjoying Shikoku

      Tour of enjoying Shikoku We will enjoy hot springs, delicious local dishes and seasonal beauty in Shikoku in this tour.On the first day we will fly from Haneda Airport to Takamatsu Airport and visit Ritsurin Park in Takamatsu in Kagawa Prefecture. It is one of the most famous strolling-style land scape gardens in Japan with beautiful pain tree groves, ponds and landscaped hills. This park was constructed by a local lord in Edo era and has also western style garden in this area. We will enjoy Sanuki Udon or white noodles made from wheat flour with special broth.Then we will go to Kotohira-gu. This place is a Shinto shrine dedicated to the seafaring-associated deity, Omono-nushi-no-mikoto, and Emperor Sutoku. Located halfway up Mt. Zozu in the town of Kotohira in Kagawa Prefecture, this renowned shrine has 785 stone steps to the main shrine and additional 583 steps to Izutama Shrine, the innermost shrine. We will stay at Kotohira hot spring.On the second day we will visit Matsuyma Castle in Matsuyama in Ehime Prefecture. This castle is a wooden building with surviving Japanese castle tower. It is one of the three big castles built on the flat land in Japan along with Himeji Castle in Hyogo Prefecture and Wakayama Castle in Wakayama Prefecture and constructed in 1854.Then we will go to Dogo Onsen, located in Matsuyama. It is one of Japan’s oldest hot springs with a history of about 3,000 years. The three-story castle-styled wooden structure with a small tower on its roof was built in 1894 and designated as the first Important Cultural Asset as a public bathhouse in Japan in 1994. The highly-acclaimed animator, Hayao Miyazaki’s blockbuster film “Spirited Away” modeled after this building.Next we will visit Uwajima Castle located in southwest of Ehime Prefecture was constructed by famous local lord Takatora Todo in 1601. It has three-story surviving Japanese castle tower. We will stay at Uwajima and enjoy local dish “tai-soumen” or thin white wheat flour noodles with cooked fish meat of a sea bream.On the third day we will go to Tatsukushi Kaichuu Park located in the southwest of Kochi Prefecture. It is in the sea and we can see very clear seawater, beautiful coral shelfs and tropical fishes there.Then we will go to Ashizuri Cape located in southernmost of Kochi Prefecture. It is very famous for its coral shelfs and beautiful light house.Next we will visit Shimanto-gawa which is the longest river in Shikoku and has 47 low water crossings. This is first-rate river with no dam built along its main stream and often referred to as “the last pristine river in Japan,” blessed with sweet fish, ell, prawn and green laver.And then we will go to Kochi Castle in Kochi City. It was constructed by famous local lord Kazutoyo Yamauchi in 1601 and has surviving Japanese castle tower. We will stay at Kochi and enjoy local dish “sawachi ryouri”, including variety of sashimi and sushi.On the last day we will visit Oboke and Koboke in Tokushima Prefecture. These are gores at the place where Yoshino river crosses Soya rive. We can see colored leaves there in autumn. And we can also look at Kzura Bridge made of creepers, which is renewed every three years. We can enjoy a local dish “soya-soba” or brown noodles made from buckwheat flour there.Then we will go to Tokushima and fly from Tokushima Awaodori Airport to Haneda Airport.

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    • Summary of the seminar on geography/Kyusyu

      Summary of the seminar of 13 May 2018 on geography/KyusyuOverviewl Historically, Kyusyu is the cradle of Japan`s main contact with foreign countries due to its proximity to Korea and China. It is also the point of entry where the first Westerners visited Japan as missionaries in 16th century.l Kyusyu is surrounded by four seas, including Pacific Ocean, Sea of Japan, Inland Sea and East China Sea.l It is relatively warm in all parts of Kyusyu throughout the year thanks to Tsushima sea current, which is created by Kuroshio current reaching mainland Kyusyu. l Kyusyu is an area of intense volcanic activities with four major active volcanoes, including Mount Aso, Sakurajima, Kirishima and Mount Unzen.l Kyusyu has five national parks, including Saikai National Park, Unzen Amakusa National Park, Aso Kujyu National Park, Kirishima Kinkouwan national Park and Yakushima National Park.l Kyusyu has multiple UNESCO designated world heritage sites including Munakata Shrine which became the 21st world heritage property in Japan in 2017. It is expected that Hidden Christian Sites in Nagasaki Region will be added to the UNESCO list for 2018 as the International Council on Monuments and Sites, known as ICOMOS, has already endorsed these sites.Major Islands in Kyusyu Name of island(s) National/Quasi-national park Prefecture Tsushima and Iki Iki-Tsushima quasi-national park Nagasaki Hirato and Goto islands Saikai National Park Nagasaki Amakusa islands Unzen Amakusa National Park Kumamoto Yakushima and Tanega-shima Yakushima national Park Kagoshima Fukuokal Fukuoka is a castle town developed by the Kuroda clan during the Edo period while Hakata is a merchant city originating from a port cityl Cruses with thousands of Chinese tourists arrive at Hakata port on a daily basis. Although Hakata has various shopping places, it is lacking sightseeing sites attractive for international tourists. Dazaifu Tenman-gu is located relatively near Hakata.l Dazaifu Tenman-gu is a shrine, founded in 903 for the memory of Sugawara-no- Mitizane. Although Sugawara was a famous scholar and excellent politician at the court of Kyoto, he was entrapped and exiled into Dazaifu by the Fujiwara clan as they found that he could threaten their powerbase. After his death, he was deified as a god of literature and calligraphy under the name of Tenman Tenjin. Thus, the shrine is visited by thousands of students who wish to pass entrance examinations As East Asian countries such as China and South Korea share culture of entrance examinations with Japan, the shrine is very popular for East Asian tourists as well.Nagasakil The geographical shape of Nagasaki with countless islands is very unique. It is surrounded by seas except for prefectural border with Saga. Nagasaki has the largest coastline (4195m) and the largest number of islands (971 islands) of all the 47 prefectures in Japan.l Due to the 1614 decree of the Tokugawa Shogunate where their religion was banned, 400,000 Japanese Christians had to either renounce or conceal their faith. After the infamous ban of Christianity among western countries was eventually lifted by the Meiji government in 1873, many hidden Christians became authentic Catholic, baptized by foreign priests, while some of them converted into Buddhists. However, others decided not to convert into either Catholic or Buddhists but to keep their unique identity as hidden Christians. It is said that approximately 20,000 to 30,000 hidden Christians still existed in isolated areas in Nagasaki by 1970. Since then, their number dramatically decreased as a result of population drain, aging community leaders, a lack of successors as well as secular life style which engulfed their communities.Sagal Arita, Imari,and Karastu are widely known as locations for porcelain production. Among them, Arita has been the most famous since the discovery of raw materials in the neighborhood in 1616. Porcelain wares created in Arita, using traditional methods, are almost glass-like. They're light and thin yet durable and each of the works is painted in gorgeous patterns. It's become a popular export -- mainly to Europe -- since the late 17th century. Today, fewer porcelain kilns are in operation.l Karastu Kunch is one of the most famous float festivals in Kyusyu. Hikiyama floats play the main role in the festival. Approximately 200 to 300 people run through the old castle town pulling the Hikiyama floats. Each float stands between five and six meters and can weigh from two to five tons. The floats are made of over 200 pieces of Washi paper, pasted and plastered on bamboo or wooden frames. It is lacquered and finished up with gold and silver leaves. TheKumamotol Kumamoto castle, which was designed t by a famous local warlord Kato Kiyomasa, was once deemed as impregnable and now is a symbol of the capital city of Kumamoto. The castle was sieged by the rebel forces during the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion. Although the castle did not fall through the siege, the government forces strategically burnt it down themselves. The keep was restored in 1960, in a similar style to the original but with a concrete framework.l In the center of Kyusyu, Mount Aso National Park includes the gigantic caldera of Mount Aso, which is among the largest in the world.Oital Oita is well-known as the prefecture of hot-springs. Although there are numerous hot-springs located in Oita Prefecture, Beppu and Yufuin, located in the eastern part of the prefecture are the most popular hot-springs.Miyazakil It is warm in Miyazaki throughout the year as Kuroshio current running from Southeast Asia eventually reaches the coast of Miyazaki. Thus, if one sees summer vegetables sold in Honshu and Hokkaido during the winter period, they are most likely to be ones grown up in forcing houses in Miyazaki. It is also known as the winter training base for professional sport teams including the prestigious baseball team of Yomiuri Giants.l One of the first national parks currently known as Kirishima Kinkouwan National Park was established in the border area between Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures in 1934.Kagoshimal Kagoshima Prefecture consists of a part of mainland Kyusyu and southwestern islands off Kyusyu.l Kagoshima Bay is bordered on one side by the Satsuma peninsula, where the onsen resort of Ibusuki, popular for its hot sand baths, nestles in an attractive setting.l Sakurajima, north of Kagoshima bay, is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. The volcano is active more or less constantly, raining ash down on Kagoshima at regular intervals.l Yakushim, one of southwestern islands off Kyushu, became 11th site of the World Heritages in Japan in 1993. Surrounded by corral reefs and often shrouded in mist, much of Yakushima is like a lush primeval forest. Yakushima`s most memorable feature is ancient cedars. One of them known as the Jomon Sugi is 7,200 years old, which is the world`s oldest tree. At 1936m,Miyanoura-dake, located in the center of the island, is the highest mountain in Kyusyu.Overviewl Historically, Kyusyu is the cradle of Japan`s main contact with foreign countries due to its proximity to Korea and China. It is also the point of entry where the first Westerners visited Japan as missionaries in 16th century.l Kyusyu is surrounded by four seas, including Pacific Ocean, Sea of Japan, Inland Sea and East China Sea.l It is relatively warm in all parts of Kyusyu throughout the year thanks to Tsushima sea current, which is created by Kuroshio current reaching mainland Kyusyu. l Kyusyu is an area of intense volcanic activities with four major active volcanoes, including Mount Aso, Sakurajima, Kirishima and Mount Unzen.l Kyusyu has five national parks, including Saikai National Park, Unzen Amakusa National Park, Aso Kujyu National Park, Kirishima Kinkouwan national Park and Yakushima National Park.l Kyusyu has multiple UNESCO designated world heritage sites including Munakata Shrine which became the 21st world heritage property in Japan in 2017. It is expected that Hidden Christian Sites in Nagasaki Region will be added to the UNESCO list for 2018 as the International Council on Monuments and Sites, known as ICOMOS, has already endorsed these sites.Major Islands in Kyusyu Name of island(s) National/Quasi-national park Prefecture Tsushima and Iki Iki-Tsushima quasi-national park Nagasaki Hirato and Goto islands Saikai National Park Nagasaki Amakusa islands Unzen Amakusa National Park Kumamoto Yakushima and Tanega-shima Yakushima national Park Kagoshima Fukuokal Fukuoka is a castle town developed by the Kuroda clan during the Edo period while Hakata is a merchant city originating from a port cityl Cruses with thousands of Chinese tourists arrive at Hakata port on a daily basis. Although Hakata has various shopping places, it is lacking sightseeing sites attractive for international tourists. Dazaifu Tenman-gu is located relatively near Hakata.l Dazaifu Tenman-gu is a shrine, founded in 903 for the memory of Sugawara-no- Mitizane. Although Sugawara was a famous scholar and excellent politician at the court of Kyoto, he was entrapped and exiled into Dazaifu by the Fujiwara clan as they found that he could threaten their powerbase. After his death, he was deified as a god of literature and calligraphy under the name of Tenman Tenjin. Thus, the shrine is visited by thousands of students who wish to pass entrance examinations As East Asian countries such as China and South Korea share culture of entrance examinations with Japan, the shrine is very popular for East Asian tourists as well.Nagasakil The geographical shape of Nagasaki with countless islands is very unique. It is surrounded by seas except for prefectural border with Saga. Nagasaki has the largest coastline (4195m) and the largest number of islands (971 islands) of all the 47 prefectures in Japan.l Due to the 1614 decree of the Tokugawa Shogunate where their religion was banned, 400,000 Japanese Christians had to either renounce or conceal their faith. After the infamous ban of Christianity among western countries was eventually lifted by the Meiji government in 1873, many hidden Christians became authentic Catholic, baptized by foreign priests, while some of them converted into Buddhists. However, others decided not to convert into either Catholic or Buddhists but to keep their unique identity as hidden Christians. It is said that approximately 20,000 to 30,000 hidden Christians still existed in isolated areas in Nagasaki by 1970. Since then, their number dramatically decreased as a result of population drain, aging community leaders, a lack of successors as well as secular life style which engulfed their communities.Sagal Arita, Imari,and Karastu are widely known as locations for porcelain production. Among them, Arita has been the most famous since the discovery of raw materials in the neighborhood in 1616. Porcelain wares created in Arita, using traditional methods, are almost glass-like. They're light and thin yet durable and each of the works is painted in gorgeous patterns. It's become a popular export -- mainly to Europe -- since the late 17th century. Today, fewer porcelain kilns are in operation.l Karastu Kunch is one of the most famous float festivals in Kyusyu. Hikiyama floats play the main role in the festival. Approximately 200 to 300 people run through the old castle town pulling the Hikiyama floats. Each float stands between five and six meters and can weigh from two to five tons. The floats are made of over 200 pieces of Washi paper, pasted and plastered on bamboo or wooden frames. It is lacquered and finished up with gold and silver leaves. TheKumamotol Kumamoto castle, which was designed t by a famous local warlord Kato Kiyomasa, was once deemed as impregnable and now is a symbol of the capital city of Kumamoto. The castle was sieged by the rebel forces during the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion. Although the castle did not fall through the siege, the government forces strategically burnt it down themselves. The keep was restored in 1960, in a similar style to the original but with a concrete framework.l In the center of Kyusyu, Mount Aso National Park includes the gigantic caldera of Mount Aso, which is among the largest in the world.Oital Oita is well-known as the prefecture of hot-springs. Although there are numerous hot-springs located in Oita Prefecture, Beppu and Yufuin, located in the eastern part of the prefecture are the most popular hot-springs.Miyazakil It is warm in Miyazaki throughout the year as Kuroshio current running from Southeast Asia eventually reaches the coast of Miyazaki. Thus, if one sees summer vegetables sold in Honshu and Hokkaido during the winter period, they are most likely to be ones grown up in forcing houses in Miyazaki. It is also known as the winter training base for professional sport teams including the prestigious baseball team of Yomiuri Giants.l One of the first national parks currently known as Kirishima Kinkouwan National Park was established in the border area between Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures in 1934.Kagoshimal Kagoshima Prefecture consists of a part of mainland Kyusyu and southwestern islands off Kyusyu.l Kagoshima Bay is bordered on one side by the Satsuma peninsula, where the onsen resort of Ibusuki, popular for its hot sand baths, nestles in an attractive setting.l Sakurajima, north of Kagoshima bay, is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. The volcano is active more or less constantly, raining ash down on Kagoshima at regular intervals.l Yakushim, one of southwestern islands off Kyushu, became 11th site of the World Heritages in Japan in 1993. Surrounded by corral reefs and often shrouded in mist, much of Yakushima is like a lush primeval forest. Yakushima`s most memorable feature is ancient cedars. One of them known as the Jomon Sugi is 7,200 years old, which is the world`s oldest tree. At 1936m,Miyanoura-dake, located in the center of the island, is the highest mountain in Kyusyu.

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  • 22May
    • 近世、近代の大衆文化

      근세,근대의 대중 문화근세는 1603년부터 시작된 애도시대입니다.에도세대에 들어 세상이 잠잠해지고 그제서야 서민 문화가 활발해졌습니다.歌舞伎(가부키)는 1600연 쯤에 지금 島根県(시마네현)出雲大社(이즈모 신사)의 무녀였던 阿国(오크니)가 신사의 모금을 모으기 위해 전국을 순례하고 인기를 끌었던 가부키 춤이 기원이라고 불리고 있습니다.당초 여성만으로 공연하고 있었습니다만 5대 장군 쓰나요시 때 풍기문란 원인으로 여겨지고 그 후는 남성만으로 공연하게 됐습니다.참신한 동작이나 화려한 의상,독특한 무대 장치,,그리고 남성이 여장하고 연기하는 것 등 당시 서민들이 관심을 가지고 가장 좋아하는 오락였다고 할 수 있습니다.그리고 400년 지난 현재까지 변하지 않는 인기가 있습니다.2009년 유네스코 세계 무형유산에 정식으로 등록 됐습니다.銀座(긴자)에있는 歌舞伎座(가부키자)에 가시면 거의 매일 공연을 보실 수 있습니다.人形浄瑠璃(인형 죠루리)는 대본의 낭독과 음악에 맞추고 1.5미터 정도의 큰 인형을 3명의 조종사가 움직이고 마치 사람이 살고 있는 것 처럼 연기하는 일본 전통예능입니다.원래 竹本義太夫(다케모토기다유)가1684년 오사카에서 공연을 시작했습니다.그 때 공연 각본을 쓴 사람이 近松門左衛門(치카마쓰몬자에몬)이었습니다. 그 사람이 쓴 대본은 인형 죠루리뿐만 아니라 가부키에도 사용됐습니다.그 후 가부키 인기에 물러나고 있던 죠루리를 19세게초에 재흥시켰던 사람이 바로 植村文楽軒(우에뮤러분락켄)이었습니다.그때문에 인형 죠루리를 분락으로 불리게 됐습니다.오사카에 있는 国立文楽劇場(국립 분락 극장)에 가시면 관람하실 수 있습니다.수모는 현제 일본 국기로 남녀노소를 불문하고 인기있는 스포츠입니다.원래 풍작을 기원하는 신사의 봉납 행사였습니다.에도시대에 들어 서민도 즐길 수 있는 오락으로 인기를 모으며 수모 선수들도 浮世絵(우키요에)에 그려질 만큼 대단한 인기를 얻었습니다.지금은 両国(료고쿠)에 있는 국가관에서 1,5.9월,3,7,11월에는 오사카,나고야,후쿠오카에서 대회가 열리고 대회마다 국영 방송인 NHK에서 방송 중계가 있고 스포츠 뉴스나 연예 뉴스에도 자주 등장합니다.浮世絵(우키요에)는 일본에서 독자적으로 발전한 그림입니다.우키요에라는 말의 의미는 당시 풍족을 그리는 풍속화였습니다..우키요에의 주제는 풍경,인물 등이며 두루마리, 부재,가리개에 그려지고 絵草紙(에조우시)라는 잡지의 삽화로써도 사용됐다.우키요에 대표작품은 葛飾北斎(가쓰시카호쿠사이)가 후지산을 그린 富嶽三十六景(후가쿠36경)과 北斎漫画(호쿠사이 만화),歌川広重(우타가와히로시게)가 그린 東海道53次(도카이도53쓰기),東洲斎写楽(도슈사이샤락)이 그린 大首絵(오쿠비에)라고 불리는 우키요에은 수모 선수나 가부키 배우의 상반신을 박력있게 그린 것이 였습니다.그들의 그림은 우에노 도쿄 국립 박물관,료고쿠 호크사이 미술관,시마네현 아다치 미술관에 가시면 보실 수 있습니다.근대 대중 문화는 명치사대 문명개화로 대표되는 것이 많습니다.서양 문화가 여러 분야에서도 들어가기 시작하며 근세 에도시대와 전혀 다른 문화가 번지기 시작했습니다.서민의 의식주에 작안하면 전통적인 옷,기모노를 여전히 입고 있었지만 서양적인 옷을 입는 사람은 처음에 귀족이나 부잣들 만이자만 점점 서민사이에서도 늘어났습니다.처음에 남자만이 입고 있었지만 움직이기 쉬운 점이나 안전성 때문에 여성들도 입게 됐습니다.음식은 서양 음식과 일본 음식이 잘 섞어 조화시켜 스키야키,단팥빵,카레등 지금도 일본 사람이 아주 선호하는 음식이 탄생했습니다.건축면에서도 외국에서 초빙한 건축가들덕분에 서양적이면서도 일본 분위기 풍기는 정취감이 넘친 건축물이 많이 생겼습니다.현존하고 찾아가실 수 있는 곳은 건덜이 설계한 니콜라이 성당,片山東熊(가카야마 도쿠마)가 설계한 赤坂離宮(아카사카 리큐),東京国立博物館表慶館(도쿄 국립박물관 효케이관),辰野金吾(다쓰노킨고)가 설계한 도쿄역,日本銀行本店(일본은행 본점)등 일본 곳곳에 많이 남아 있습니다.다이쇼시대에 들어가면 더 서양풍 생활이나 문화에 익숙해서 자유로운 대중문화가 보급하기 시작했습니다.예를 들면 다이쇼시대에 유행한 것은 양복을 입은 모던한 여성,모가가 지하철을 타고 銀座(긴자)에 가며 어슬렁거렸습니다.이것을 긴부라라고 해서 당시 유행어가 됐습니다.그리고 제국 극장에서 연극을 즐기는 것이 당시 최신 패션이었습니다.그런 근대 대중문화를 엿볼 수 있는 곳이 바로 한국이었습나다.안타깝게도 일제시대의 문화가 거의 비슷한 것이라고 할 수 있습니다.서울에는 긴자같은 백화점이 있고 길거리도 근대화됐습니다.오가는 사람들 옷차림도 서양화되며 긴자 처럼 모던 걸이나 모던 보이 등 패션에 신경을 쓴 사람들을 볼 수 있었습니다.그리고 구 서울역,신세계백화점 본점 구관,조선은행 본점 등도 그 당시 보습이 그대로 남아 있는 곳입니다.교육에도 힘을 실어서 문맹도가 낮아졌습니다.평양에는 노면 전차도 달리며 한국 도시 지역은 일본의 번화가와 비슷한 분위기를 풍기고 있었습니다.近世、近代の大衆文化近世は1603年から始まった江戸時代のことです。江戸時代に入り世の中は平穏になり、ようやく庶民の文化が活発になってきました。歌舞伎は1,600年頃、現在島根県出雲大社の巫女だった阿国が神社の募金を集めるために全国を巡礼して人気を集めた”かぶき踊り”が起源だと言われています。当初女性だけで公演していましたが、五代将軍綱吉の時、風紀が乱れる原因とされその後男性だけで公演することになりました。動作や華麗な衣装、独特な舞台装置、男性が女装して演技することなど、当時庶民たちの関心を集め最も好まれる娯楽であったと言うことができます。そして400年経った現在まで変わらぬ人気があります。2009年ユネスコ世界遺産に正式に登録されました。銀座にある歌舞伎座に行かれればほとんど毎日公演をご覧になることができます。人形浄瑠璃は台本の朗読と音楽に合わせて、1.5メーターほどの大きな人形を3人の使い手が動かし、まるで人が生きているかのように演技する日本の伝統芸能です。もともと竹本義太夫が1,684年大阪で公演を始めました。その時公演の脚本を書いた人物が近松門左衛門でした。彼が書いた台本は人形浄瑠璃だけでなく歌舞伎にも使用されました。その後歌舞伎の人気に押されていた浄瑠璃を19世紀の初め再興させた人物が植村文楽軒でした。そのため人形浄瑠璃を文楽と呼ぶようになりました。大阪にある国立文楽劇場に行かれれば観覧することができます。相撲は現在日本の国技であり老若男女を問わず人気のあるスポーツです。もともと豊作を祈願する神社の奉納行事でした。江戸時代に入り、庶民も楽しむことができる娯楽として人気を集め 力士たちも浮世絵に描かれるほど大きな人気を出ました。現在は両国にある国技館で1月5月9月、そして3月7月11月には大阪、名古屋、福岡で大会が開かれ、大会のたびに国営放送であるNHKで放送中継があり、スポーツニュースや芸能ニュースにもしばしば登場します。浮世絵は日本で独自的に発展した絵画です。浮世絵と言う言葉の意味は当時の風俗を描いた風俗画です。浮世絵の画題は風景、人物等であり絵巻物や団扇、屏風に描かれ絵草子と言う雑誌の挿絵としても使われました。浮世絵の代表作は、葛飾北斎が富士山を描いた冨嶽三十六景、北斎漫画、宇田川広重が描いた東海道五十三次、東洲斎写楽が描いた大首絵と呼ばれる浮世絵は力士や歌舞伎役者の上半身を迫力満点に描いたものでした。彼らの浮世絵は上野にある東京国立博物館、両国の北斎美術館、島根県足立美術館へいかれるとご覧いただけます。近代大衆文化は明治時代、文明開化で代表されるものがたくさんあります。西洋文化がたくさんの分野で入り始め、近世の江戸時代とは全く違う文化が広がり始めました。衣食住に着目すると、伝統的な服、着物を相変わらず着ていましたが西洋的な洋服を着る人は、当初貴族やお金持ちだけでしたが徐々に庶民の間でも増えていきました。 最初は男性だけが来ていましたが動きやすい点や、安全性のため女性たちも着るようになりました。食べ物は西洋の食べ物と日本の食べ物をうまくミックスし調和させてすき焼き、あんぱん、カレーなど今も日本の人々がとても好む食べ物が誕生しました。建築面でも外国から招聘した建築家たちのおかげで西洋的でありながら日本の雰囲気漂う情緒感が溢れる建築物がたくさんできました。現存して見ることができるものは、コンドルが設計したニコライ堂、片山東熊が設計した赤坂離宮、東京国立博物館表慶館、辰野金吾が設計した東京駅、日本銀行本店など日本の至る所に多く残っています。大正時代に入るとさらに西洋風の生活や文化に慣れて自由な大衆文化が普及し始めました。例を上げると大正時代に流行した事は洋服を着ているモダンな女性、モガが地下鉄に乗り銀座に行きぶらぶらすることでした。このことを銀ブラと言い、当時の流行語でした。そして帝国劇場で演劇を楽しむことが当時の最新ファッションでした。このような近代大衆文化を覗き見ることができるところが韓国でした。残念なことではありますが、日帝時代の文化がほとんど似ていたと言うことができます。ソウルには銀座のような百貨店があり通も近代化されていました。行き来する人々の服装も西洋化され銀座のようにモダンガールやモダンボーイなどおしゃれに気を使う人々を見ることができました。そして旧ソウル駅、新世界百貨店本店旧館、朝鮮銀行本店等もその当時の姿そのまま残っています。教育にも力を注ぎ識字率も高くなりました。平壌には路面電車も走っていて韓国の都市地域は日本の繁華街と同じ雰囲気を醸し出していました。

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    • 日本の城

      일본 성일본 성은 지어진 지형으로 3종류로 구분될 수 있다.15세시 전국시대에 많이 볼 수 있었던 山城(야마지로)는 산속에 건설되어 있고 요새로써의 역할이 큰 것이 특징이다.전쟁 때 적에 침입을 막기 쉬운 반면 사람이 사는 게 불편한 점이 많았다.성주들은 야마지로에는 살지 않고 낮은 곳에 있는 館(야카타)라고 불리는 집에 살고 있었다..요즘에 일본 마추피추라고 불리고 인기있는 兵庫県(효고현)竹田城(다케다 성),織田信長(오다노부나가)가 지은 安土城(아주치 성)유적이 히라지로로써 유명하다.지금 실제로 볼 수 있는 야마지로는 岡山県(오카야마현)에 있는 備中松山城(빗추 마쓰야마 성)이다.이 성은 대하 드라마의 촬영지로써 사용됐다.平山城(히라야마지로)는安土(아즈치)桃山(모모야마)시대에 야마지로보다 약간 낮은 언덕이나 인공적 작은 산위에 세워진 성이다.마을을 한눈에 볼 수 있고 산속에 있는 야마지로만큼은 든든하지 않지만 주요 길에 인접하고 城下町(죠카마치)라고 불리는 도시를 형성할 수 있는 장점이 있다.세계유산에 등록되고 있는 姫路城(히메지성),국보로 지정되고 있는 滋賀県(시가현)彦根城(히코네성)과 愛知県(아이치현)犬山城(이누야마성)등이 있다.桃山(모모야마)시대,江戸(에도)시대에 들어 세상이 점점 잠잠해진 무렵에 평야에 지워진 平城(히라지로)가 등장했다.에도시대에 一国一城制 즉 한 영주가 통치하는 藩(나라)에는 성은 하나만 있어야 된다는 규칙이 있었다.그 때문에 일부 나라를 제외하고 성은 나라안에 하나만 있었다..히라지로는 어디에서도 볼 수 있는 天守(텐슈칵)라고 불리는 망루를 가진 성이 많았다.텐슈칵이 가진 의미는 명주의 권력 상징이나 명주의 정치적 가치를 높이기 위한 것이다.전국시대에 있었서는 크고 높은 건물은 표적이 되기 쉽기 때문에 큰 텐슈칵을 가진 성이 거의 없었지만 이 시대에 들어 텐슈칵이 많이 생긴 것은 평화의 증명이라고도 할 수 있을 것이다.한편 히라지로도 방어 기능이 없었던 것이 아니다.해자로 성을 둘러싸고 돌담이나 狭間(사마)라는 총이나 활을 쏠 때 사용하는 장치도 있었다.그러나 에도시대의 성은 전쟁 기지보다 행정부로써 기능했던 것은 분명한다.유명한 히라지로는 현재 황궁으로 사용되고 있는 江戸城(에도성) ,세계유산인 二条城(니죠성),전후 재건된 大阪城(오사카성)이나名古屋城(나고야성)이 있다.지금 일본에서는 텐슈칵이 남아있는 성은 12군데,그 중 국보는 히메지성,長野県(나가노현)松本城(마쓰모토헝),滋賀県(시가현)彦根城(히코네성),이누야마성,島根県(시마네현)松江城(마쓰에성) 5군데이다.그리고 히메지성과 京都(교토)니죠성은 세계유산에 등록되고 있다.참고로 말씀드리면 히라지로와 히라야마지로의 분류는 사람이나 책에 따라 다른 의견도 있다.그리고 위에서 소개한 성이외도 일본 각지에 더 오래된 성의 유적이나 鎌倉(카마쿠라)처럼 도시 전체가 만리장성처럼 돌담으로 둘러싸인 성각 도시도 있었다.그런 점에 착안해서 성을 보시는 것도 재미있을 것이다.日本の城日本の城は建てられた地形で3種類に区分できます。15世紀戦国によく見られた山城は、山の中に建設されて要塞としての役割が大きいことが特徴である。戦争時敵の侵入を防ぎ易い反面、人間が住むのには不便な点が多かった。城主たちは山城には済まず低いところにある館と呼ばれる家に住んでいた。最近日本のマチュピチュだと呼ばれる人気のある兵庫県竹田城、織田信長が建設した安土城遺跡が有名である。現在実際に見ることができる山城は岡山県にある備中松山城です。この後は大河ドラマの撮影地としても使用されました。平山白は安土桃山時代に、山城より若干低い丘陵や人工的な小さい他の上に建てられた城です。街を一目で見ることができ山の中にある山城ほど堅固ではないが主要道路に行隣接して城下町と呼ばれる年を形成することができる利点があった。世界遺産に登録されている姫路城、国宝として指定されている滋賀県彦根城と愛知県犬山城などがある。桃山時代、江戸時代に入ると世の中がだんだんと落ち着いて来、平野に建てられた平城が登場した。一刻一城制、1人の大名が統治する藩に城は1つだけでなければならないという規則ができた。そのため1部の国を除いて代は国内に1つだけになった。平城はどこからでも見ることのできる店主と呼ばれる大きな楼閣を備える城が多かった。天守閣が持つ意味は大名の権力の象徴いや大名の政治的権力を高めるためのものであった。一方、平城も防御機能がなかったわけではない。濠で城を囲み石垣や狭間など、銃や弓を打つとき使用する装置もあった。しかし江戸時代の城は戦争の基地よりも行政府としての機能が大部分だった事は明らかである。有名な平城は現在皇居として使われている江戸城、世界遺産である二条城、戦後再建された大阪城いや名古屋城がある。今日本で天守閣が残っている白は12カ所、そのうち国宝は姫路城、長野県松本城、滋賀県彦根城、犬山城、島根県松江城五箇所です。 参考に付け加えれば平城と平山城の分類は人や本によって違う点もあります。そして今まで紹介した城以外にも日本各地にもっと古い、城の遺跡や鎌倉のように街全体が万里の長城のように石垣で囲まれている城郭都市もありました。このような点に着目して城をご覧になるのも面白いと思います。

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    • 文明開化と関連する観光地

      文明開化(분메이카이카)와 관련된 관광지분메이카이카는 에도막부의 쇄국정책이 끝나고 명치시대에 들어 외국의 발달한 제도,기술,문화등을 급속히 받아들이며 일본에서 독특한 진화를 했던 일입니다.3가지 분야에 나눠서 소개하겠습니다.제도면에서는 학제,우편 제도,새로운 달력을 들 수 있습니다.여때까지 제대로된 교육 체계가 없었던 일본에 처음으로 도입된 제도였습니다.그 제도는 프랑스에서 도입된 제도이며 현재 일본의 의무교육제도의 기초가 된 것입니다.우편제도는 영국에서 도입된 것이며 당시 후불이었던 요금체계를 선불로 바꿔 저가격에 통일하고 일본 방방곡곡까지 정비된 훌륭한 제도였습니다.새로운 달력은 여태까지 사용했던 음력과 달리 계절의 움직임에 맞고 서양 각국이나 미국등 많은 나라와의 교류에도 필요한 것이었습니다.기술면에서는 철도와 건축이 놀랄 정도로 발달했습니다.영국의 기술을 도입하고1872년 일본에서 처음 東京 新橋(도쿄 신바시) 横浜(요코하마)사이에 철도가 깔렸습니다.석탄으로 증기를 내며 달리는 모습에 사람들의 눈길을 끌었습니다.건축면에서는 새로 들어온 근대적인 건축 기술을 목수들이 일본의 목공 기술과 조화시켜서 만든 擬洋風建築 즉 서양식 건물이지만 약간 일본 느낌을 풍기고 낭만적인 분위기를 가진 건축물이 많이 생겼습니다.그리고 가스등도 당시 문화적 생활의 상징이며 길거리를 환하게 비췄습니다.문화면에서는 양복과 신문,그리고 음식을 들 수 있습니다.여태까지 전통적인 옷 즉 키모노를 입고 일상 생활을 하고 있었습니다. 분메이카이카로 인해 서양처럼 양복을 입고 생활하는 습관이 들어 왔습니다.서민에게 양복을 입는 것은 조금 돈이 들고 사치스러운 일이었습니다만 편하게 움직일 수 있는 점이나 서양 사람들에게 속옷이 보일 때도 있고 불쾌감을 주었던 점,그리고 여성의 사회 진출과 아울러 점점 보급해 왔습니다. 그리고 신문입니다.신문은 문화적이 뿐만 아니라 발달한 인쇄기술덕분에 당시 사람들 사상을 표현할 수 있게된 혁신적인 것이었습니다.음식은 우리가 매일같이 먹는 음식의 많은 것이 그 시대에 생긴 것입니다.일본 사람 국민적 음식이라도 할 수 있는 카레,일본 음식의 대명사 수키야키,서양적 빵에 팥소를 넣은 딴팥빵 등 거론하면 끝이 없을 정도입니다.그 음식들은 일본 음식이나 요리법에 서양 음식을 섞어서 이제야 완전한 일본요리로써 존재하고 있습니다.분메이카이카로 인해 일본 사람은 서양 문화를 일본 문화에 맞춰서 소화시켜 독특한 문화를 형성했습니다.그것은 어느 시대에서도 볼 수 있는 일본의 장점이라도 할 수 있을 겁니다.관련된 관광지1.당시의 학교 모습을 볼 수 있는 곳은 長野県(나가노현)開智(카이치)학교입니다.거기에서는 새로 들어온 서양 건축기술과 일본 건축기술이 잘 조화하고 개성적이며 운치있는 건물을 볼 수 있습니다.2.群馬県(군마현)富岡製糸場(토미오카 제사장)은 프랑스의 제사 기술을 도입해서 세워진 공장입니다.이 공장은 일본 근대화뿐만 아니라 세계 비단 산업에 큰 공헌하고 또 당시 시설이나 설비가 고스란히 남아있는 드문 곳입니다.세계유산에도 등록되고 있습니다.3.도쿄 汐留(시오도메)에 있는 鉄道歴史展示室(철도 역사 전시실)은 처음에 전철이 개통한 旧新橋駅(예날 신바시 역을 재현하고 여러 자료가 전시 되고 있습니다.4.江戸東京(에도 도쿄)박물관에서는 당시 도쿄 모습을 그대로 재현되고 있는 모형이 있습니다.5.愛知県(아이치현)犬山市(이누야마시)에 있는 明治村(메이지 마을)에서는 명치 시대 건물이 그대로 재현되고 있고 시간을 거슬러 올라가는 느낌이 들겁니다.6.上野(우에노),築地(쓰키지)精養軒(세이요켄) ,日比谷(히비야)松本楼(마쓰모토로)는 일본식 카레의 원조라고 불리고 있습니다.文明開花と関連する観光地文明開花とは江戸幕府の鎖国政策が終わり明治時代に入り外国の発展した制度、技術、文化などを急速に受け入れながら日本で独自的な進化をしたことです。3つの分野に分けて紹介します。制度面では学制、郵便制度、新暦を上げることができます。それまできちんとした教育体系がなかった日本で義務教育の基礎となるものでした。郵便制度はイギリスから導入されたもので、当時後払いだった料金体系を先払いに変え低価格に統一し日本全国津々浦々まで整備された素晴らしい制度でした。新暦はそれまで使われていた陰暦とは違い季節の動きに合わせ、西洋の国々やアメリカなど多くの国との交流にも必要なものでした。技術面では鉄道と建築が驚くほど発達しました。イギリスの技術を導入して1872年日本で初めて東京の新橋から横浜の間に鉄道が敷かれました。石炭で蒸気を出し走る姿に人々の視線を集めました。建築面では新しく入ってきた近代的建築技術を大工たちが日本の木工技術と調和させ建てられた偽西洋風建築、即ち西洋式建築で且つ若干日本の雰囲気を醸し出すロマンチックな雰囲気を持つ建築物がたくさんできました。そしてガス灯も当時文化的生活の象徴であり通りを明るく照らしました。文化面では洋服と新聞そして食べ物を上げることができます。それまで伝統的な服、着物を着て日常生活を送っていました。文明開花を契機として西洋のように洋服を着て生活する習慣が入ってきました。庶民にとって洋服を着る事は少しお金がかかり贅沢なことでした。しかし楽に動くことができる点や西洋の人々にとって下着が見えることもあり不快感を与えていたこと、そして女性の社会進出と合わせて徐々に普及してきました。そして新聞です。新聞は文化的だけでなく発達した印刷技術のおかげで当時の人々の思想を表現することができるようになった革新的なものでした。食べ物は今毎日のように食べている食べ物の多くがこの時代に生まれたものです。日本人の国民移植と言うことのできるカレー、日本料理の代名詞すき焼き、西洋的なパンにあんこを入れたあんぱんなど挙げればキリがないほどです。これらの食べ物は日本の喰べ物や料理法に西洋の食べ物をミックスして今や完全な日本料理として存在しています。文明開花を契機として日本の人々は西洋の文化を日本の文化に合わせて消化させ独自の文化を形成しました。これはどの時代にも見ることができる日本の長所だと言うことができます。関連する観光地1、 当時の学校の姿を見ることのできる長野県垣内学校です。ここでは新しく入ってきた西洋の建築技術と日本の建築技術が調和して個性的であり風情ある建物を見ることができます。2、 群馬県富岡製糸場はフランスの製糸技術を導入して建てられた工場です。工場は日本の近代化だけでなく世界のシルク産業上大きな貢献をし、 また当時の施設や設備がそのまま残っています。世界遺産にも登録されています。3、 東京汐留にある鉄道歴史展示室は初めて鉄道が開通した旧新橋駅を再現し、いろいろな資料が展示されています。4、 江戸東京博物館では当時の東京の姿をそのまま再現した模型があります。5、 愛知県犬山市にある明治蔵には明治時代の建物がそのまま再現されていてタイムスリップをしている気分を味わえます。6、 上野、築地精養軒、日比谷松本楼は日本式カレーの元祖だと呼ばれています。

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  • 21May
    • 長野県の冬の観光地と郷土食「おやき」

      <長野県の冬の観光地と郷土食「おやき」><Winter tourist spots and local cuisine in Nagano>Ngano (along with Niseko in Hokkaido) is regarded as one of the most famous ski resorts in Japan. Nozawa Onsen is a hot spring resort located in northern Nagano where you can enjoy skiing and is popular among foreign tourists particularly Australians. Dosojin Matsuri (Fire festival) is another attraction to enjoy for visitors from other countries. Nearby toutist spots are “Jigoku-dani” hot spring and “Obuse” where you can enjoy “Snow Monkeys” bathing in hot springs and historical arts in Obuse respectively.“Oyaki” is a local cuisine in Nagano. It is a kind of bun stuffed with cooked vegetables such as eggplants and mushrooms. Variety is different according to the areas. Some are baked and others are steamed. Ingredients are also various.                徳 武<長野県の冬の観光地と郷土食「おやき」>長野県の冬と言えばスキーです。 北海道のニセコと並んで白馬も知られてきましたが、最近では野沢菜で知られる野沢温泉もオーストラリア人を中心とする欧米人の集客が増えてきました。上質な雪と同時に冬の道祖神祭り(火祭り)を目的に来る外国人も多いです。 野沢の近くには湯田中渋温泉郷があります。地獄谷温泉は冬には野生の猿が露天風呂に入るのを間近で見られるということで今では多くの外国人観光客が訪れます。昨年の通訳案内士試験では、この湯田中渋温泉郷やその近くの小布施などに関して、地元の人でないと知らないであろう詳細な問題も出されました。 今年の試験でもし長野についてチェックしておくなら諏訪湖の御神渡りでしょう。御神渡は諏訪湖が寒さで全面結氷し、氷の膨張で中央が割れて盛り上がる現象を神様が渡ったことになぞらえたものです。最近は温暖化で中々発生せず、今年は5年ぶりに発生しました。もし試験で「今年は諏訪湖の御神渡がありましたが前回は何年前か」などという問題が出たら、御柱祭が7年ごとに行われることにまどわされないようにして下さいね。 次は長野県の郷土料理「おやき」です。 簡単に言うと「具入りまんじゅう」で、なすやきのこ、野沢菜などを調理したものが具として入っています。「なすのおやき」「野沢菜のおやき」ということです。地方によってバラエティーがあり、焼いたもの、蒸したもの、まんじゅうのようなもの、平たいものなど様々です。山梨県や福井県、鳥取県などにも同様のおやきと呼ばれるものがあるようで、神奈川県の郷土料理「かんこ焼き」も大変良く似たものです。ちなみに、北海道では、今川焼のようなものを「おやき」と呼ぶ地域もあるそうです。善光寺の門前通りでは出来立てのおやき買っての場で食べることもできます。冬の観光に信州の温泉とあたたかい「おやき」はどうでしょう。                                                              徳武

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    • 最も【日本らしい】近代文学

      最も【日本らしい】近代文学時代を超えて読み継がれる作品にはそれなりの面白さ、美しさ、教訓が込められているものです。日本近代文学においても同じです。芥川龍之介は、近代最も有名な文学者のひとりである。今回、彼の短編小説「鼻」を見ってみましょう。物語の中では、僧侶でありながら容姿を気にしている禅智内供が描かれてあり。内供は15cm以上もある長い鼻をひどく気にしている。周りから笑われ内供の自尊心は傷ついていた、鼻を小さくする方法をいろいろと試したが、効果はなかった。ある日、弟子に聞いた方法により鼻小さくなった。しかし、鼻は小さくなったのに周りからはより一層笑われるようになった。ところがある朝、一夜にして内供㋨鼻は元通りの長い鼻に戻っていました。内供は「今度こそ誰も笑うものはいないだろう」と晴れやかな気持ちになりました。しかし意外なことに、以前にも増して内供に鼻をあざ笑うようになってしまいました。禅智内供には、鼻が短くなったのに、いまだに笑われる理由がわかりません。これを作者が代わって説明します。すなわちある人間が不幸を脱した時、それを見ている周囲の人々は何となく物足りなくなり、もう一度その人間を不幸に陥れみたいという感情を持ってしまうというのです。周囲の人々はこうした感情から笑っていたのでした。「人の不幸は蜜の味」ということわざで作者を表現してあるではないでしょうか。京浜東北線「田端駅」北口改札から徒歩2分の場所:田端分士記念館。かつて芥川龍之介が田端で暮らした家を1/30ほどで復元した模型を展示しております。

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    • 禅が日本の生活文化に与えた影響

      「禅が日本の生活文化に与えた影響」禅が日本の生活文化に与えた影響といえば、茶道、華道、書道(水墨画)、建築(書院造)、などがあげられ、それらは現在でも日本人の生活の一部として生き続けています。なかでも日本の茶道はこれらお芸術を総合した、一大芸術体系を組織していると言えます。たとえば、まず茶室という建築と、それを包む庭園とがあります。 茶室の床の間には、墨蹟ないし水墨画等が掛けられ(書道・美術)、花が活けられ ます(華道)。茶を点てる道具には、茶碗・茶入や棗・茶杓・建水・釜・炉があり ます。同時に、茶席(茶道のパーティ)においては、お菓子も欠かせず、本格的に は懐石料理を用意することになります。それにも、漆器のお盆やお椀、陶器の皿等、また酒器等がそろえられなければなりません。茶道においては、これらのすべてに、 禅の精神が浸透しているといえます。 茶道の大成者・千利休は、茶道が禅ないし仏教と深い関係にあることを常に述べていました。この茶道のめざすところは、清浄無垢の仏世界を出現させ、もてなす 主と、もてなされる客とが、互いに心の汚れを離れて、清らかな心を深く通い合わ せることだと言っています。またこの茶道の極意は、ただ夏はいかにも涼しいよう に、冬はいかにもあたたかいように、茶はのみやすいようにするのみだ、と言って います。このような、簡素ななかの深い他者への思いやりは、禅の精神そのものだということです。観光地

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    • 17世紀までで日本で1番開かれた地域と観光地

      17세기꺼지 일본에서 가장 열린 지역와 관광지九州(규슈) 특히 佐賀(사가),長崎(나가사키),福岡(후쿠오카)등 동해에 향하는 지역이라고 생각합니다.1.야요이 시대에 유적인 佐賀県(사가현)吉野ヶ里(요시노가리)유적도 큰 마을로 성장했던 것도 대륙과 가깝고 온난한 기후가 이유일 것입니다.요시노가리는 지금 복원되고 있는 유적이지만 그 규모때문에 성이라고도 생각되고 있습니다.2.2017년에 세계유산에 등록된 신이 깃들인 섬 宗像、沖ノ島(무나카타,오키나와)는 福岡県(후쿠오카현)玄界灘(겐카이너다)에 뜨는 작은 섬입니다.일본의 신화 시대부터 대륙,조선반도와의 항로로 번영해 오고 바다의 비단길이라고도 불립니다.또 이 섬은 宗像大社(무나카타 신사)라고 바다의 세 명의 여신을 모시며 항해의 안전을 기원하는 신사입니다.오래전부터 바다를 배타고 항해하는 사람들은 잘 돌아갈 수 있다면 제일 좋은 것을 봉납하는 관습이 있었기 때문에 오키노시마에는 중국,조선반도,페르시아(현재 이란)것까지 8만 건을 넘은 많은 보물이 발견되고 있고 국보로 지정되고 있습니다.3..対馬(쓰시마),壱岐(이키)도 겐카이너다에 뜨고 있는 작은 섬입니다.특히 쓰시마는 한국 부산까지 배로 1시간정도 거리이며 한국인 관광객이 많이 찾아오는 장소입니다.이 곳은 5,6세기쯤부터 대륙과 조선반도와 전쟁 때 기지로 사용되거나 방위 거점으로 중요한 역할을 맡고 있었습니다.663년 백제를 돕고 신라와 싸운 白村江(백강)전투 때는 침략에 대비해 요새를 건축해 防人(사카모리)라고 불리는 병사를 배치했습니다.그 병사들이 지은 시가 万葉集(만요슈)라는 가집에 수록되고 있습니다.또 13세기 원나라가 일본을 침략해 온 元寇(겐코)때,16세게 말에 붕신수길이라고 불리는 豊臣秀吉(도요토미히대요시)가 조선에 진출했을 때도 기지로 사용된 곳이 었습니다.4.福岡県(후쿠오카현)太宰府(다사이후)는 오랫동안 일본 제 2의 도시로 외교와 방위의 거점으로 큰 역할을 맡아 왔습니다.10세기 정부에서 중책을 맡아 있었던 菅原道真(수가와라미치사네)가 좌천된 땅이며 좌천된 채 돌아가신 그의 영혼을 가라앉히기 때문에 그 사람을 모시는 太宰府天満宮(다사이후 산사)가 생겼습니다.5.에도 막부 정책 때문에 일본에서 외국에게 열리고 있던 곳은 長崎県(나가사키현)뿐이 었습니다.에도막부와 외국의 무역은 다 거기에서 지낸됐습니다.많은 사정이 있었서.처음에 平戸(히라도)에 있던 상관은 현재 나가사키시내 出島(대지마)에 옮겼습니다.대시마에서는 서양에서 온 네델란드 사람만이 살 수 있었지만 사실은 나가사키에는 중국 사람도 많이 살고 있었습니다.그들은 대지마안에만에 머물지 않아도 괜찮았었습니다.그 때문에 나가사키에서는 서양뿐만이 아니라 중국의 영향이 섞인 독특한 문화 흔적을 볼 수 있습니다.6.다사이후 신사 근처에 九州国立博物館(규슈국립박물관)이 있습니다.거기는 일본의 외교 역사를 아시아 역사 관점에서 전시되고 있는 곳입니다.17世紀までで日本で1番開かれた地域と観光地九州特に佐賀、長崎、福岡など東シナ海に面している地域だと考えられます。1、 弥生時代の遺跡である佐賀県吉野ヶ里遺跡も大きな村として成長したのも大陸と近く温暖な気候が理由です。吉野ヶ里は現在復元されている遺跡でありますがその希望のため城だとも考えられています。2、 2017年に世界遺産に登録された神の宿る島宗像沖島は福岡県玄界灘に浮かぶ小さな島です。日本の神話時代から大陸、朝鮮半島との航路として反映してきました。海のシルクロードと呼ばれています。またこの島は宗像大社と言う海の3人の女神を祀る公開の安全を祈願する神社です。大昔から海を船に乗って航海する人々たちがちゃんと帰ってこれたら、1番良いものを奉納する慣習があったため沖ノ島には中国、朝鮮半島、ペルシャの物まで 8万点を超える多くの宝物が発見され国宝として指定されています。3、 対馬、壱岐も玄界灘に浮かぶ小さな島です。特に対馬は韓国釜山まで船で1時間ほどの距離であり、韓国人観光客がたくさん訪れるところです。ここは5、6世紀頃から大陸や朝鮮半島と戦争する時基地として使用されたり防衛拠点として重要な役割を果たしてきました。663年百済を助け新羅と戦った白村江の戦いの時、侵略に備えて要塞を作り防人と呼ばれる兵士を配置しました。この兵士たちが読んだ歌が万葉集と言う歌集に収録されています。また13世紀,元の国が日本を侵略した元寇の時、16世紀末にプンシンスギルと呼ばれた豊臣秀吉が朝鮮へ出兵した時も基地として使用されたところです。4、 福岡県太宰府は長い間日本第二の都市として、又外交と防衛の拠点として大きな役割を果たしてきました。10世紀,政府で高い地位であった菅原道真が左遷された場所であり、左遷されたまま亡くなった彼の霊魂を沈めるために彼を祀った太宰府天満宮ができました。5、 江戸幕府の政策のため日本で外国に開かれていたのは長崎だけでした。江戸幕府と外国の貿易はすべてここで行われていました。多くの事情があり元は平戸にあった商館は現在の長崎市内で島に移されました。出島では西洋から来たオランダ人だけが生活することができましたが、実は長崎には中国人もたくさん住んでいました。彼らは出島の中に滞在しなくても大丈夫でした。そのため長崎では西洋だけでなく中国の影響を混ぜった独特な文化の痕跡を見ることができます。6、 太宰府天満宮の近くに九州国立博物館があります。ここは日本の外交の歴史をアジアの歴史観点から展示されているところです。

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    • 明治維新で最も評価される点

      明治維新(메이지이신)에서 가장 평가된 점江戸幕府(에도막부)15대 장군 徳川慶喜(도쿠가와요시노부)가 천황에게 정치권을 돌려드리는 大政奉還(다이세이호간)을 했다는 것입니다.그 덕분에 일본은 戊辰(보신)전쟁 등 다소의 혼란이 있었지만 다른 아시아 각국과 달리 새로운 체제로 바로 정치를 시작할 수 있었습니다.만약에 저항했었으면 아편 전쟁에 지고 영국의 식민지가 돼 버린 청나라처럼 영국,프랑스 등 서양각국의 식민지가 된 가능성이 높았다고 생각할 수 있습니다.또 에도시대 말기 일본 각지에서 尊皇攘夷(손노죠이)라고 천황을 모시고 외적을 쳐야 겠다고 주장하는 새로운 사상을 가지고 꿈을 꾸고 힘을 양성하는 사람들이 많아졌습니다.예를 들면 현재 山口県(야마구치현)萩(하기)에 松下村塾(쇼카손쥭)에서 젊은 하급 무사들을 가르치고 육성했던 吉田松陰(요시다쇼인)처럼 당시로서는 아주 혁신적인 의지를 가지고 일본의 미래를 우려하는 사람도 있었습니다.쇼인의 제자는 초대 총리인 伊藤博文(이토히로후미),정치가이쟈 군인,그리고 총리가 된 山縣有朋(야마가타아리토모),그리고 막부를 무너뜨리고 새로운 세상을 꿈꾸는 무사,대하 드라마에도 자주 등장하는 久坂玄瑞(구사카겐스이)나 高杉晋作(다카스기신사크)등 이른바 幕末志士(막말 시시)라고 불리는 무사들이 있었습니다.그 사람들 덕분에 시대 흐름이 빠르게 됐다고 생각할 수 있습니다.더 薩長土肥(삿죠도히)라고 불리는 지역에서는 에도시대 말기 막부의 구태의연한 체제에 불만을 가지고 尊王攘夷(손노죠이) 사상을 키웠다.이 것은 당시로서는 혁신적인 사상이었습니다.특히 薩摩(사쓰마),長州(죠슈)지방은 명주뿐만 아니라 하급 무사까지 현실을 직시할 수 있는 시점을 가지고 있었서 면치유신의 추진에게 큰 힘을 실었습니다.그리고 명치유신의 완성에 힘을 실었던 것이 에도 막부의 관료들이 었습니다.갑자기 정권이 돌려와서 제대로된 정치를 할 수 없을 뻔한 새 정부 대신에 실질적으로 정치를 움직였던 사람들이 바로 그 사람들이 였습니다.그 사람들은 大名(다이묘)나 旗本(하타모토)처럼 높은 지위에 있었던 사람이 아니지만 사무 처리등을 잘 해결했었습니다.그들의 역할은 지금이라면 Non Career라고 불리는 그 사람들이 없었으면 세계적으로도 유명한 명치유신은 이루지 못할 일이었습니다.관련된 관광지二条城(니죠 성)室町(무로마치)시대쯤부터 여기에 있었습니다.현재 건물은 에도시대에 건축된 것입니다.니죠성의 원래 역할은 천황쪽을 감시하는 것이 었습니다.도쿠가와 장군들이 교토에 있을 때는 여기에 머물기도 했었습니다.1994년 오래된 도읍 교토의 문화재로서 세계유산에 등록될 만큼 역사적,문화적도 튀어난 명소입니다.명치유신에 관해서는 여기서 大政奉還(다이세이호칸) 즉 15대 장군인 徳川慶喜(도쿠가와요시노부)가 정권은 천황에게 반환했던 유명한 장소입니다.山口県(야마구치현)萩(하기)명치유신의 선구자적 역할을 했던 長州藩(죠슈 번) 무사 이며 학자였던 吉田松陰(요시다쇼인)이 가르쳤던 학원 松下村塾(쇼카손쥭)이 남아 있습니다.여기서 많은 인재가 패출 되었습니다.그리고 城下町 즉 성각 주변의 마을도 당시 분위기가 많이 남아 있고 역사적 정서도 느낄 수 있은 곳이 입니다.萩에는 明治日本産業革命遺産(명치 일본 상업 유산)23개중 5개의 유산이 있고 가 볼 만한 명소입니다.鹿児島県(가고시마현) 후루사토관가고시마 시에 있고 명치유신 때 활약했던 西郷隆盛(사이고타카노리)나大久保利通(오쿠보토시미치)를 비롯해 幕末志士(에도 말기에 뜻을 가진 무사들)나 명치유신에 관한 자료관입니다.明治維新で最も評価される点江戸幕府15代将軍徳川慶喜が天皇に行政権を返した大政奉還が最も大事なことだと思います。そのおかげで日本は戊辰戦争など、多少の混乱がありましたが他のアジア諸国とは違い新しい体制ですぐに政治を始めることができました。もしも抵抗知っていたならばアヘン戦争に負けてイギリスの植民地になってしまった清国のように、イギリスフランスなど西洋諸国の植民地になった可能性が高かったと考えることができます。また江戸時代末期日本各地で尊王攘夷と言う天皇を奉り外敵を打たねばならないと主張する新しい思想を持ち夢を見、力を蓄える人たちが多くなりました。例を挙げると現在山口県萩で松下村塾で若い下級武士たちを教え要請した吉田松陰のように当時としてはとても革新的な意志を持ち日本の未来を憂慮した人もいました。松陰の弟子は初代総理である伊藤博文、政治家で軍人、そして総理にもなった山形有朋そして幕府を倒そうと新しい世の中を夢見た武士、大河ドラマにもよく登場する日下玄瑞や高杉晋作など、いわゆる幕末の志士と呼ばれる武士たちがいました。そんな人々のおかげで時代の流れが速くなったと考えることができます。さらに薩長土肥と呼ばれる地域では、江戸時代末期幕府の旧態依然な体制に不満を持ち、尊王攘夷思想を育てました。これは当時としては現実的な思想でした。特に薩摩長州地方は大名だけではなく各9節まで現実を直視することのできる視点を持っていて明治維新の推進に大きな力となりました。そして明治維新の完成に力を貸したのは江戸幕府の官僚たちでした。政権が戻ってきてきちんとした政治を行うことが難しかった新政府の代わりに、実質的に政治を動かした人々、まさに彼らでした。彼らたちは大名や旗本のように高い地位にいたわけではありませんが、事務処理などをきちんとやることができました。彼らの役割は現在であればノンキャリアと呼ばれ、彼らがいなければ世界的にも有名な明治維新は成し遂げられなかったことです。関連する観光地二条城室町時代ごろからここにありました。現在の建物は江戸時代に建築されたものです。二条城のもともとの役割は、天皇側を監視することでした。徳川将軍たちが京都に行く時はここに留まりました。1,994年こと京都の文化財として世界遺産に登録されるほど歴史的、文化的に優れた名所です。明治維新に関してはここで大政奉還、15代将軍である徳川慶喜が政権を天皇に返還した有名な場所です。山口県萩明治維新の先駆者的役割をした長州藩の藩士であり学者であった吉田松陰が教えていた学校松下村塾が残っています。ここで多くの人材が排出されました。そしてお城の周辺の街である城下町は当時の雰囲気が色濃く残っていて歴史的情緒を感じることができる場所です。萩には明治日本の産業革命いさん23カ所のうち五個荘が見ることができる名所です。鹿児島県ふるさと館鹿児島市にあり明治維新の時に活躍した西郷隆盛や、大久保利通を始め幕末の志士や明治維新に関する資料館です。

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    • わびさびについて

      와비사비에 대해서와비사비는 일본 특유의 미의식을 나타내는 말입니다.와비는 우울하다, 비탄, 기댈 곳이 없어 불안한 마음 등 오래 전에는 “만요슈”에서도 사용돤 말로부정적인 심신의 상태를 나타내는 말이었지만 중세에는 부족함의 아름다움을 표현하여 부족, 결여, 부자유한 등 부족한 상황 아래 조용하고 한적함 속에서 나오는 정취를 즐긴다는 새로운 미의식으로 변화해 갔습니다.사비는 오래된, 변색한, 시들어 버린 등 세상의 만물은 시간이 지나면 변화를 하기 때문에 녹슬거나, 더러워지거나, 부서지거나 하여 일반적으로 이것을 상태가 나빠지는 것으로 간주되지만 반대로 이러한 변화에서 태어나는 독특한 아름다움을 사비라고 합니다. 즉 오래된 것에서 느끼는 아름다움입니다.사비의 아름다움을 느낄려면 와비의 마음이 없으면 느낄 수 없으므로 와비사비라고 자주 묶어서 말합니다.와비의 미의식은 무로마치 시대 후기에 차노유와 결합되어 발달하였으며 사비는 하이카이에서 중요시 여겨져 에도시대 마츠오 바쇼가 사비의 아름다움을 대성하였다고 전해지고 있습니다.와비사비의 철학을 궁극적으로 규명한 문화가 차도입니다.특히 와비차는 그때까지의 화려한 차노유에 비해 소박하면서 간략한 와비의 정신을 중요시한 차노유의 한 양식입니다. 와비차가 유행한 것은 아즈치모모야마 시대로 그 개념을 창조한 사람은 무라타 주코입니다. 또 와비차를 대성한 사람은 센노리큐라고 합니다.와비사비의 대표적인 건죽은 교토의 은각사입니다. 무로마치 막부의 8대 장군 아시카가 요시마사에 의해 지어진 은각사는 휘황찬란한 금각사에 비해 소박하며 조용한 정취가 있어 사람들의 마음을 안정시키는 아름다움이 있습니다.은각사로 대표되는 무로마치 중기의 문화를 히가시야마 문화라고 하며 오늘날 일본을 대표하는 여러 문화가 이 시대에 발전하였습니다.은각사의 동구당 동인제에서 보여지는 주택 양식인 쇼인 양식을 시작으로 료안지의 카레산스이 정원(연못을 모래와 돌로 표현한 정원), 셋슈의 “사계산수도권”등의 수목화 그리고 꽃꽃이, 차노유등이 있습니다.わびさびについて「わびさび」は日本独特の美意識を表す言葉です。「わび」は“気落ちする、悲嘆、心細く思う”など古くは「万葉集」でも使われた言葉で、ネガティブな心身の状態を表す言葉でしたが、中世には不足の美を表し、不足、欠如、不自由といった足りない状況下で、静寂で閑静な中から生まれる趣を楽しむという新しい美意識に変化していきました。 「さび」は“古びる、色あせる、枯れる”など、この世のものは経年変化によってさびれたり、汚れたり、欠けたりして、一般的には劣化とみなされるが、逆にその変化が織りなす独特な美しさをさびといいます。つまり古びたものから感じられる美しさです。さびの美しさを感じるにはわびの心がなければ感じることができないため、わびさびとよくセットで言われています。わびの美意識は室町時代後期に茶の湯と結びついて発達し、さびは俳諧で重んじられ江戸時代の松尾芭蕉がさびの美を徹底したと言われています。わびさびの考えを究極まで突き詰めた文化が茶道です。特にわび茶はそれまでの豪華な茶の湯に対し、質素簡略のわびの精神を重んじた茶の湯の一様式です。わび茶が流行したのは安土桃山時代でその概念を生み出したのは村田珠光(むらたじゅこう)です。またわび茶を完成させたのは千利休とされています。わびさびの代表的な建築は京都の銀閣寺です。室町幕府の8代将軍足利義政によって造られた銀閣寺は、きらびやかな金閣寺に対し質素で静寂(せいじゃく)な趣があり人の心を落ち着かせる美しさがあります。銀閣寺を代表とする室町時代中期の文化を東山文化といい、今日日本を代表する様々な文化がこの時代に発展したのです。銀閣寺の東求堂同仁斎でみられる新しい住宅様式である書院造りをはじめ、龍安寺の枯山水庭園、雪舟の「四季山水図巻」などの水墨画、生け花、茶の湯などがあります。

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