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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FJHPpNAxlak

UNKNOWN SPEAKER:  More questions please. 

AUDIENCE MEMBER 2:  Thank you.   So if we look back at NATO- Russian relations starting with the post, with the beginning of the post-Soviet period, so there was a period of dialogue and even expectations that a new democratic Russia would actually join NATO.  Then by the end of the 90s, with the bombings of Yugoslavia, with many post-communist states becoming NATO members these relations have really gone sour, then there was a rapprochement after the 9/11 when Putin supported Bush in the war of terror in Afghanistan, then starting with I think the Iraq war, there has been a constant period of falling and deteriorating relations.  So my question is, has NATO membership or some sort of a joint security programs with Russia, have they ever been on the table and if the cooperation with post-Soviet Russia failed, why do you think is the reason for such failure?

JENS STOLTENBERG:  So first of all you are quite right in that for many, for several years we actually established closer and closer corporation and dialogue with Russia and I was myself, as Prime Minister, attending different NATO Summits where Putin attended and Medvedev attended, President Putin and Prime Minister Medvedev so, so that was an example of how we were working together and we also had practical cooperation in different things.  Of course there were some ups and downs, but at least we were moving in the direction of more cooperation. 

The main reason, there are different reasons, but the main reason why this has changed is Crimea.  The illegal annexation of Crimea, to use military force  against a neighbour is unacceptable and of course NATO had to respond and we have responded partly by, increasing our military presence in the Eastern part of the Alliance, to send a clear signal that we are ready to defend all allies against anything similar to what has happened in the Ukraine, Crimea.  We also responded by suspending our practical cooperation with Russia, so we still have political dialogue with Russia but we don’t have practical cooperation with them and then of course the West has also responded by implementing economic sanctions against Russia.  That’s not a NATO decision, but all NATO allies have, through the European Union the United States and Canada, have implemented sanctions.  So the main reason for the, the worsening, the deteriorating relationship is Crimea.  Then the question is why did Russia do that?  Well I think it’s because they have this idea of some kind of, they want to control their neighbours and to control neighbours is not compatible with the idea sovereign nations and sovereign states.  I am coming from the neighbour State of Russia and of course I am very glad that I haven’t tried to control Norway in the same way, as they have tried to control other neighbours and ah, and ah, but at the same time one of the lessons that I have learned from regional politics is that it is possible to talk to Russians.  It is possible to have a dialogue with them and Norway having a very long border line in the sea where we have gas and oil on the Barren Sea and the Polar Sea but also on land, we have been able to work in a pragmatic way both with the Soviet Union during the Cold War, but also with Russia but the reason why we have been able to work with Russia is not despite of our membership in NATO but it’s more because of it, because as long as we are strong, as long as we are part of a strong military alliance, we have the best possible foundation also to engage in dialogue with Russia.  So I believe that we should, we have to stay strong, we have to stay united, but based on that we should continue to work and strive for a more cooperative and constructive relationship with Russia.  We should continue to have a chance for political dialogue open and manage our relationship with Russia as good as we can because Russia will not disappear, Russia will be there, Russia will be our biggest neighbour and therefore we have to relate to them in the best possible way. 

UNKNOWN SPEAKER:  Do you think one of the reasons you were appointed as Secretary General is because you have experience in this sort of corporate dialogue with Russia from when you were Prime Minister? 

JENS STOLTENBERG:  It’s hard for me in a way to answer why the leaders of NATO appointed me but as least they have, what I have said to some of them is that, is that it has also to do with my, my, let me put it another way, of course it has to do with my experience as a Norwegian politician because that’s what I have done all my life and I became Secretary General so it’s hard imagine something else and, and, and one important part of my political life in Norway has been to relate to Russia.  Actually when I became Deputy Minister for Environment back in 1990 one of my first tasks was to start to work with Russia on addressing pollution, emissions of sulfur up in the ( inaudible) which damaged a lot of nature in Norway and I went to ( inaudible)  and Murmansk and different cities and we discussed practical environmental cooperation.  Then later on in the 1990s I became Minister for Energy and Industry and we had a lot of commissions, we had a Norwegian Russian Commission on Industry and Energy.  We met in Moscow, we met in Oslo and we developed a lot of projects on energy and industry with the Russians and that was a mutual benefit both for Norway and for Russia and then when I was Prime Minister we worked on the Delimitation Line which is a borderline in the sea, in the Barents Sea, but it’s important partly because it’s a big, big sea, territory but also, because it divides the continental shelf and there is oil and gas there and we were able to reach an agreement with President Putin and Prime Minister Medvedev.  That was good for Norway, it was good for Russia and part of that agreement is also that we are going to cooperate up in the High North related to energy and also when I was Prime Minister I also and that’s still the case we had to know that the Russian military, the Sixth Fleet, the fleet up at the (inaudible) Peninsula they meet with the Norwegian Armed Forces every week, that is they communicate with them regularly to make sure that there are no misunderstandings, no incidents and no accidents.  We also have strong joint exercises with them related to search and rescue and so on up in the Barents Sea.  The reason why I say this is that, in the North there is some practical, as I say pragmatic relations between a NATO ally Norway and Russia but that takes place based on some absolute principles that they respect our sovereignty, our territorial integrity and actually they respect it so much that they have agreed on a new borderline and of course it’s based on the knowledge that NATO, sorry that Norway is a NATO ally so even if Norway is not really a big power they know that NATO is there to protect and defend us.  So for me, Norway is an excellent example of how strength and dialogue, defense and dialogue is not something which contradict each other but reinforce each other and I guess that’s one of the reasons why I was elected as Secretary General of NATO.

UNKNOWN SPEAKER:  Thanks.  Let’s get another question from the audience.  Let’s go to the sort of turquoise jumper.

AUDIENCE MEMBER 3:  Can you understand that Vladimir Putin sees it as a provocation that NATO has expanded to the east after the end of the Cold War, especially in light of the belief of apparently some Russians that the negotiations about the reunion of Germany were based on the promise or implicit promise that NATO would not expand to former Warsaw Pact countries.

JENS STOLTENBERG:  The answer is no, I cannot understand that Russia has the opinion that it is a provocation, that NATO has enlarged with new members from central and eastern Europe and the reason why I can’t understand that and I cannot accept that is that I very much believe that every nation, big or small, east or west, have the right to decide its own path.  So, it’s not, in a way, NATO that has expanded, it is Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Hungary, that has applied for membership because they want to become members through the democratic processes and should we then tell them no, you’re not allowed to become a member of NATO because Russia would not like it.  That’s an impossible message.  And it’s violating everything I believe in when it comes to the respect for people to decide their own destiny and their own future.  So, the notion of NATO expanding sounds like we are, in a way, grabbing land. No, they are coming to us asking for membership and after various thorough assessment procedures and they have to qualify and meet standards and implement reforms, then they are invited in, but only as long as there are democratic processes and they meet NATO standards, and after many years of assessment.  So this is based on the idea that Russia has the right to decide the destiny of its neighbours and Russia do not have that right but neither do any other country.  So, for instance, yesterday I met the Serbian Prime Minister and Serbia do not want to become a member of NATO.  That’s fine. We respect countries if they say we don’t want to be a member of NATO and respect them if they say they want to be a member of NATO. It’s not for us to decide, it’s for them to decide and Russia should be more relaxed and accept that neighbours decide their own path and that will be good for the neighbours and for Russia.

UNNAMED PERSON: Let’s go to back middle, yeah, you’re turning around.

Q: Thank you very much, Mr. Secretary General. I wanted to ask you about Afghanistan. NATO has been involved in Afghanistan since 2003. I think Operation Resolute Support is going into its’ 3rd year and 10 years prior to that with ISAF.  The treasure and blood that has been spilled in Afghanistan is quite astounding in NATO’s history and I wanted to ask you whether this has led to lessons learned or any lessons for NATO members in terms of expeditionary versus neighbourhood activities?

JENS STOLTENBERG:  I would also like a moment, I just have to add one small thing to my last answer and that it’s not true, it’s a false statement that it was an agreement when Germany was unified that NATO should not have new members.  So that’s not true but second, even if it was on such an agreement, it would have been absolutely unacceptable that in a way the President of the United States or someone else should agree on what Poland or Hungary or Latvia have the right to do.  So it’s double wrong.  It’s wrong because it didn’t happen and if it happened, it would have been wrong anyway.  So that’s not the case. 

Second on Afghanistan, of course there are lessons learned from Afghanistan and I think that the most important lesson, there are actually two lessons.  One is that it was right to go into Afghanistan because it was necessary to react to an attack that killed thousands of people in Washington and New York, the Twin Towers on the 9/11 attacks, and it was impossible to accept that Afghanistan remain a safe haven for international terrorists.  It was a clear UN mandate, the international community supported it and NATO has been the instrument for the international community to fight terrorism and to prevent Afghanistan becoming a safe haven for international terrorists. 

The other lesson I think we have learned from Afghanistan is that we should have started earlier to train local forces because in the long run, it is difficult to beat foreigners, in a way, coming from NATO countries and partner countries and to fight the war in Afghanistan for the Afghans.  So it’s much better if local forces, forces from the country itself, can take responsibility for security and stability in its own country and therefore, we have now ended our combat mission in Afghanistan. Since 2015, we are only in to train, assist and advise  mission where we train and advise local Afghan forces and I’m absolutely certain that in the long run, that’s a much more sustainable and viable solution that we don’t do the big combat operations but we enable the Afghans themselves to stabilize their own country.  This is a lesson which is relevant for Afghanistan and if anything, we should have started to train local forces earlier so we could have ended our own combat operations earlier but I think it was an important lesson learned for other countries because I think one of the best weapons we have against terrorism is to train local forces, is to enable local forces to fight terrorism themselves because the fight against terrorism is not a fight between the West and the Muslim world. Most of the victims of terrorist attacks are Muslims. So we have to enable countries in the region, in the Middle East, in North Africa, to fight ISIL, DAESH, terrorist organizations themselves and in the long run, that’s a more stronger weapon than we fighting their wars.

UNNAMED PERSON: We have time for one more question. Let’s go to the person there.

Q: General Secretary, thank you for your time. I was wondering what is NATO taking in steps into de-escalating the tension between the NATO Alliance and Russia on a non-military basis. Thank you.

JENS STOLTENBERG:  What we do is that we keep the channels for political dialogue open in different ways. We have something called a NATO-Russia Council, which is a council that was established back in the 1990s where Russia and the 28 NATO allies meet.  This kind of dialogue is important because it is important in a way to just sit around the same table and address some of our different security challenges and even if we don’t agree on all of them, I think it’s important that we talk, that we have dialogue, that we speak because that at least helps us to find solutions.  For instance, we have discussed Ukraine, we didn’t agree, but I think it’s important that we meet, discuss Ukraine. We have discussed Afghanistan and we have discussed what we call risk reduction and transparency and that is about how can we avoid incidents, accidents related to military activity because with more military build-up, more military activities along our borders, the risk for incidents, for accidents, has increased and we saw the downing of the Russian plane over Turkey last year and we have to try to do whatever we can to avoid that kind of incidents or accidents and if they do happen, prevent them from spiralling out of control and create real dangerous situations.  So the higher tensions, the more military activity, the more important it is that we have direct dialogue, direct contact, to avoid misunderstandings and miscalculations that can create really dangerous situations.  So, we do this, we continue to do that and of course, we also then continue to meet.  On a political level, I have met Foreign Minister Lavrov, my deputy secretary general has contact with her counterparts with Russian officials, so we continue to have and also many NATO allies have on a bilateral level contacts and dialogue with Russia. I mentioned Norway but also other NATO allies engage with Russia in different ways, for instance, the United States. The other thing is that NATO’s response, our increased military presence for instance in the Baltic countries, is measured, it’s responsible. We speak about battalions, which is an important but limited military presence. So there’s no way that can be a threat. NATO does not pose any threat to any country. So we also calibrate our military response in a way that contributes to keeping tensions down.  We are there not to provoke, we are there to prevent conflict and to provide the necessary deterrence to make sure that all allies are safe in a more unstable world.

UNNAMED PERSON: Thank you.  Ladies and gentlemen, firstly join me in thanking Secretary General JENS Stoltenberg

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NATO Chief Jens Stoltenberg Speaks About President-Elect Donald Trump

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKYQML_KRp8

 

NATO News w/CC: 11-24-16. Sec. General Stoltenberg's Speech at Oxford University, London.   http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_137882.htm?selectedLocale=en

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3871toAgq8

NOAH LACHS (President, Oxford Union): Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen and welcome to the first event of three today. Our next speaker is a former Prime Minister of Norway, and in October of 2014, he became the thirteen Secretary General of NATO. Please join me in welcoming Jens Stoltenberg.

CROWD (Oxford Union): (Clapping).

JENS STOLTENBERG (Secretary General of NATO): Thanks so much and good afternoon. It’s really a great honour and a great pleasure to see you all today and to be able to speak to you because I know that the Oxford Union has really been a platform for free speech and for open debate for almost two hundred years. And for me, to be able to speak to you is really an honour because free speech and open society is what NATO is there to defend. That’s our core value is to defend open and free societies. And that I also would like to tell you that there are many alumnis from Oxford that have, and people who have been members of this union for many years that have served in NATO for many years. One, general called Wesley Clark–he was our Supreme Allied Commander for some years and he’s a Oxford Union member. And also my Assistant Secretary General, sitting there, Patrick Turner ­– he’s responsible for operations and he is a member of the Union, he studied here and he told me, just now, that he studied Medieval History and Medieval War, and then he started to work for NATO, which also…

CROWD (Oxford Union): (Laugh).

JENS STOLTENBERG (Secretary General of NATO): How should I say, not only good news. So, my task, or what I will do today, is that I will try to be brief, not too long, and to share with you some reflexions on NATO and how NATO is adapting to a new and more demanding security environment. And after that, I’m happy to take questions and answer. So, to have time for that, I’ll try to be brief and not covering all the issues but at least, pointing out some of the main challenges we face as an alliance today. And NATO’s core task being a military and political alliance is to defend and protect all allies – 28 member states from Europe, US and Canada. And we do so by protecting and defending each other while standing together based on the principle or the idea of “one for all, and all for one.” And this idea or this principle is enshrined in our founding treaty, the Washington Treaty, in something called Article 5, which is our collective defence clause. And the main message there is that an attack on one ally would be regarded as an attack on all allies, on the whole alliance. So, by standing together, and promising to defend each other, we are strong and we have been able to contribute to peace and stability in Europe for almost seventy years and to be the strongest alliance in history, protecting all allied countries. We have done so under very different circumstances. For approximately forty years, we did that during the Cold War, from our foundation in 1949 until the end of the Cold War with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and then elated, the dissolution of the Soviet Union. But during the Cold War, we had a big confrontation between NATO, the United States on one side, and then the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact on the other side. And we successfully were able to deter the Soviet Union and the Cold War ended without any shot being fired, and we started after the end of the Cold War to try to build a partnership with Russia. We enlarged more and more of those countries that were previously members of the Warsaw Pact, they became NATO members. And people started also to ask whether we needed NATO anymore, because the reason why we existed – to confront the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact – didn’t exist anymore.

But then we soon discovered that it was still a need, still a reason to keep NATO as a strong alliance, because we saw that we had instability around our borders close to NATO allies, first in the Balkans, where we had a civil war in the 1990’s, or several wars in the 1990’s, and NATO moved into Bosnia and Herzegovina with a big military operation. We went into Kosovo to preserve, or to end the war and to preserve the peace and stability in the Balkans. That was, of course, important for our own security because the fighting and the civil war we saw in the Balkans was also a direct threat to NATO allied countries. Then we conducted a big military operation in Afghanistan after attacks on the United States, 9/11. We have been fighting piracy off the Horn of Africa, conducted air strikes in Libya and we have done what we, in the NATO language, call “crisis management” or “projecting stability” beyond our borders because when our neighbours are stable, then we are more secure. So, for about twenty five years, we didn’t focus so much on collective defence in Europe because the Soviet Union wasn’t there. We didn’t see a real threat coming from Russia. And we focussed on crisis management, projecting stability beyond our borders: Afghanistan, the Balkans and other places in the world. Then the world changed again with a more assertive Russia, with Russia using force first in Georgia, then later on in 2014, against Ukraine, illegally annexing Crimea. And then NATO was called upon again. And then we are now faced with the double challenge of both, continuing to project stability beyond our borders with actually more instability, more violence close to NATO borders: Iraq, Syria, ISIL and North Africa. And Afghanistan is still a challenge for us. So we have to continue to do crisis management, project stability beyond our borders, but at the same time we have to do more collective defence in Europe. So we have in a way, not the luxury of choosing either crisis management beyond our borders or collective defence in Europe. We have to do both at the same time. That’s exactly what NATO now is doing. We are adapting NATO to a new and different world. We are increasing our strength in Europe. We have implemented the biggest reinforcement to our collective defence since the end of the Cold War. We have increased the readiness and responsiveness of our forces. We have tripled the size of something we call the “NATO Response Force,” a force which is able to reinforce to deploy quickly. And then, we have also for the first time deployed forces, so we are in the process of deploying forces, to the eastern part of the Alliance with the battle groups in the three Baltic countries, and to Poland and also increased presence in the south east of the Alliance. We do this because for us it is, of course, a co-responsibility is to continue to provide the necessary deterrents to prevent the war, not to provoke a war and we have adapted to a more assertive Russia, being responsible for aggressive action in Ukraine.

The important thing to remember is that, what NATO does is defensive, it is proportionate and we don’t want a new Cold War. We don’t seek confrontation with Russia and we, therefore, keep the channels for political dialogue open with Russia. And we are not strengthening our defence because we want to fight the war, but we are delivering strong deterrents because we now that’s the best way to prevent a war. At the same time, we are also now starting to increase defence spending because this has a cost, so we decided at our summit in Wales in 2014, that we needed to invest more in our defences. And some countries already meet the NATO target of spending 2 per cent or more on defence. The UK is among those countries, the United States is another. But most of the NATO allies do not spend 2 per cent, they spend less than 2 per cent of GDP on defence. So one of my, or perhaps, my main priority since I became Secretary General of NATO back in 2014, has been to urge member allies to invest more in defence. The good news is that they have actually started to do so. After many years of decline, defence spending have started to increase and there’s a long way to go, there’s still much to do, but at least, it is a good thing to see that more and more allies understand that they have to invest more in our security when times are changing, and when we see a more challenging and demanding security environment. In addition to doing more on collective defence in Europe, increasing our presence in the eastern part of the Alliance, we have also stepped up our efforts to fight terrorism and to stabilize our neighbourhood. We continue in Afghanistan our biggest military operation ever. We support the effort of the coalition fighting ISIL. We train Iraqi officers. We provide support with our AWACS surveillance planes to planes from the UK and from the United States, and from other countries conducting airstrikes over Syria and Iraq against DAESH or ISIL. And we also work with other countries in the region like Jordan and Tunisia to help them being able to fight terrorism and to stabilise their own, or to maintain their own countries, as stable countries in the region. We are also present in the Mediterranean. We have deployed ships to the Aegean Sea to help cut the lines of illegal trafficking of the Aegean Sea.

The reason why I tell you all this is just to illustrate that NATO has been able to adapt and to change. The world has changed, so NATO has changed and we are doing both a collective defence in Europe but we stepped our op at the same time, our efforts to stabilize our neighbourhood. And that’s perhaps the most important thing, is that NATO has proven again and again that when the security environment changes, we are also able to change. We are changing the way we are delivering our core tasks. But our core tasks remains exactly the same that by standing together, by being strong and by defending each other, we make sure that all allies are safe and by that also, preserving peace and stability in Europe and North America. So for NATO, it is important to continue to be united and that’s the most important strength of our Alliance. I will stop there to make sure that we have time for some questions. Thank you so much.

CROWD (Oxford Union): (Clapping).

NOAH LACHS (President, Oxford Union):  Thank you very much Secretary General.  You ended there saying that the world has changed and therefore NATO has changed.  To what extent to you think Russia who, you know, originally the power you are blocking in terms of the Warsaw Pact, in terms of the potential saying the invasion to what extent are they once again the greatest threat to European stability and European peace? 

JENS STOLTENBERG (NATO SECRETARY GENERAL):  So we don’t see in there any imminent threat from Russia against any NATO country but what we see is a more assertive Russia, a Russia which has, over many years, invested heavily in defense.  They have tripled their defense spending since the year 2000 in real terms.  They have modernized capabilities, they are exercising more and they are much more modern in defence capabilities now, than they had just a few years ago and they are also modernizing their nuclear forces and they are also using a lot of, what I should say, rhetoric to intimidate neighbours and also related to their nuclear forces, a rhetoric related to the use of nuclear forces but, the most important thing is that we have seen a Russia which is willing to use military force against neighbours. 

We saw it first in 2008, in Georgia, but even more serious, we saw it in Ukraine, where they annexed, illegally annexed, Crimea and where they continue to destabilize Eastern Ukraine and the illegal annexation. Crimea is the first time since the end of the Second World War in Europe, that one country has used force to annex a part of another country so, all of this is the reason why we have stepped up, why we are investing more in collective defense, not because we want confrontation, not because we want a new arms race but because we have to respond in a measured, responsible, proportioned way to make sure that there is no miscalculations in Moscow about our resolve to protect and defend all allies. 

Q:  Sir, what do you think of the reasons for this sort of aggressive rhetoric, the increased defence spending.  Are Russia paranoid or is there an expansionist agenda?

JENS STOLTENBERG:  I think as always, what I say, I am bit reluctant to speculate too much about the thinking but what we can see is, what they actually do. And, what they actually do, is that they are trying to re-establish some kind of sphere of influence in the neighborhood to re-establish the thinking we had after the Second World War with the Yalta Agreement, where Europe was divided in spheres of interest.  That is history, that is not a way to, what should I say, govern Europe because that is undermining or violating the respect for each and every nation’s sovereignty and a right to decide its own path.  So we don’t believe in spheres of influence, we believe in the independence and the sovereignty of all nations but what Russia does in Georgia, in Moldova, in Ukraine and in other countries is to try to, in different ways, to re-establish some kind of neighborhood which they control and especially for the Baltic countries which were part of the Soviet Union of course for them it is extremely important to have the guarantees from NATO, that we will protect them, that they will be independent and free countries and that NATO is there to make sure that no one violates their sovereignty and their the territorial integrity of those countries.

Q:  Another place that Russia seems to have some influence is in the mind of President-elect Donald Trump who has hinted that he might be willing to join Putin in Syria to re-establish the total rule of Bashar Al Assad and defeating ISIS in the process.  If this is not simple rhetoric and if it is true, what does it mean for Russia’s and NATO’s, sort of former satellite states?

JENS STOLTENBERG:   First of all the important thing is that I am absolutely certain that the United States will continue to be committed to NATO and to our collective defense and to US security guarantees to Europe.  I spoke with the President-elect last week on the phone and he expressed strong support to NATO.  He expressed strong support to the idea of NATO, of our collective defense, our security guarantees and I am certain that that will continue to be the case, not only because President-elect Donald Trump stated clearly that he supports NATO, and the obligations we all have made as in being members of the alliance, but I also strongly believe of it because a strong NATO is not only good for Europe, it’s obviously good for us because that is a cornerstone of security, but it’s also good for the United States. I think that two World Wars and the Cold War have taught us all, including the United States, that stability and peace in Europe is also important for the United States and we have to remember that the first time we invoked the Article 5, the collective defense clause NATO, was after an attack on the United States after the 9/11 attacks on the United States back in 2001 showing NATO’s solidarity is also important for them, and hundreds of thousands of European NATO soldiers have served in Afghanistan in an operation which was triggered directly as a result of an attack on the United States.  So, I am certain that the United States will continue to be committed to NATO.  Then for NATO it is no problem that NATO Allies talk to Russia on different issues.  Actually NATO decided at our summit in Warsaw in July this year, that we will keep channels for a political dialogue open with Russia.  Russia is our biggest neighbour and we have to talk to them, we cannot isolate them, and we have to sit down and address different issues, both as NATO as an alliance, but also individual allys.  For instance, the United States. They have spoken with Russia on issues related to Syria, many times, both on how to try to find a peaceful negotiated solution, but also how to make sure that there is no, how shall I say, incidents, accidents taking place in Syria where both Russian forces operate and the United States operates.  Russia was instrumental when it came to, regarding the Iran nuclear deal so to speak to Russia, to talk to Russia, to have dialogue with Russia is, is, absolutely in line with NATO policies and NATO decisions. So that’s nothing we should be concerned of. 

Q:  Okay, one of Donald Trump’s major gripes with NATO is similar to your own, it’s people not paying their way, not reaching this 2% and in fact there is four countries in Europe that make that 2% and as you said it’s England, Poland, Estonia and Greece.  What’s the reason that the other countries aren’t paying their way?

JENS STOLTENBERG:   The reason is that almost all politicians that I have met they would have preferred to spend money on defense, no sorry, on education, on health and infrastructure instead of defense because most people like education, health more than defense.  So, if politicians have, and what I say, an opportunity to do, to spend more on health and education and less on defense, they will do it; and I think we also have to understand that this is linked to the fact that for many years we saw tensions going down.  After the end of the Cold War, tensions went down, and the Warsaw Pact was dissolved and we felt that we lived in a safer world and I have told many people before that when I was Minister of Finance back in Norway in the 1990s I was responsible for cutting defense spending and I was quite, as I say, impressed by my ability to do so; but, when I became Prime Minister later on, I was also responsible for increasing defense spending in Norway after 2008, and the reason why I am saying that is, that I think it’s absolutely understandable that countries reduce defense spending when tensions are going down as long as they are able to increase defense spending when tensions are increasing and we live in a more dangerous world and that’s exactly the case now.  So, yes, it was possible to explain why we reduced in the 1990s and perhaps in the beginning of the year 2000, but now we have to be able to increase and as I said, the, the picture in Europe is still very mixed, but at least the picture in Europe is better than it was two years ago, because in 2014 it made a decision to start increase defense spending and now European Allies have started to move in that direction.  The UK leads by example because more nations are now following the UK and have started to increase defense spending.

Q:   Do you think there is something to worry about in Europe, in that stable Europe that you have described with the recent Brexit referendum here and potential referendum in France if Marie Le Pen gets in?  That the EU could disintegrate and we’d see sort of more sectarian violence as we used to maybe 100 years ago?

JENS STOLTENBERG:  First, I would like to state that what you have seen is, of course, for many, many years that there has been a lot of debate about the European Union.  We have seen different discussions about the future of the European Union and that is important. But, at the same time, we are seeing that NATO has remained united and strong.  So, of course, Brexit, that is not for me to comment.  I don't have any opinion on Brexit but Brexit has not, what shall I say, made NATO less united, if anything the opposite. NATO is an alliance of 28 democracies soon to be 29 with Montenegro.  People in different allied countries elect people from, or leaders from different parties with different political views, there are many different opinions among leaders in NATO countries but we have always proven that we are able to agree on our core cause to be together, to stand together and to protect each other and as long as we are able to do that, NATO is able to deliver what we are supposed to deliver; a strong collective defense deterrent and by that, protecting all allies.  So I am not going to debate about the future of the European Union but I have seen that NATO has been able to stay united, stay strong, also in times where we have seen more instability and political uncertainties around us.

Q:   So one of those nations with a complex relationship with the European Union, but a strong relationship with NATO is Turkey.  Now in 2015, Turkey involved Article 4, after the threats by ISIS to its territorial integrity yet Kurdish forces accuse Turkey of enabling and even helping ISIS.  Can Turkey rely on NATO’s support to protect itself from ISIS but also use ISIS to pursue and anti-Kurdish agenda?

JENS STOLTENBERG:  Turkey is a key ally for NATO, not least because of its geographical location.  Turkey is bordering Syria and Iraq, bordering ISIL in Syria and Iraq and Turkey is bordering both Ukraine and Russia in the North in the Black Sea and Georgia in the East. So, and Turkey has the second largest army in NATO.  Turkey holds 3 million, around 3 million refugees, so Turkey’s key,  both when it comes to the way we respond to a more assertive Russia, but also in the way NATO addresses the challenges with turmoil, violence to the South, ISIL DAESH, but also the migrant and refugee crisis.  All of this makes Turkey important, not only for NATO but for the whole of Europe and also for the European Union.  Turkey is a member of NATO but not a member of the European Union.  I visited Istanbul when I met with President Erdogan on Monday.  We discussed many different challenges we face together, but one of the challenges of course we discussed was the fight against ISIL and Turkey has now stepped up its effort, its efforts to fight ISIL.  They have ground troops in Syria and in Iraq where they fight ISIL and the important thing for me is that there is maximum coordination between Turkey, with its forces in Syria, and the US and other NATO allies which are present in the same countries.  NATO as an Alliance, is not present in Syria.   NATO, as an Alliance, supports Turkey.  We have increased our military presence equal in insurance measures in Turkey, and we are supporting the Alliance, but NATO as an organization is not responsible for ongoing operations in Syria, so how those operations are conducted I think it’s right of me to leave to the US, Turkey and the other countries which are on the ground. 

NOAH LACHS:  Thank you very much.  Now I would like to go to the audience.  If you have a question put your hand up high and wait for the microphone to get to you.   Could we go to the gentleman on that side. 

AUDIENCE MEMBER 1:   Yes Sir.  Thank you very much for being here today.  You spoke a lot about NATO’s deterrence capability vis-à-vis Russia, and I wonder, it seems to me that, that the deterrence capability is best, best organized to deter a conventional threat and there’s a lot of talk today about hybrid warfare as a threat that emanates from Russia and I wonder if Russia isn’t really operating with tanks and fighter aircraft and overland assault but rather through propaganda, political subversion, little green men how exactly is NATO positioned to deter that threat?

 JENS STOLTENBERG:  First of all I think you are very right that cyber and different kinds of covert operations, sometimes called hybrid warfare is, what I say, is a very big challenge and many of the threats that we have seen, have been much more related to that kind of warfare than more conventional attacks and what we saw in Crimea was what is referred to as “hybrid warfare” with what you  called “little green men”.   It’s hard to where the idea is to conduct covert operations, to deny in a way, responsibility and then create and use propaganda and so on to try and destabilize the country and by that conduct aggressive operations.  This was one of the issues I discussed with Prime Minister Theresa May yesterday.  Cyber is extremely important in modern warfare.  It’s hard to imagine any conflict without a cyber-component and the U.K. is lead, the U.K. has capabilities, competent skills in cyber, which is of high value for all of us.  NATO has decided, and we are in the process of strengthening our cyber-defenses. At the Summit again in Warsaw in July of this year, we made two important decisions. 

First we made the decision to establish cyber as a domain, as a military domain so now we have air, sea, land and cyber as military domains and that will enable us to be more, to better coordinate our efforts, to better focus our efforts related to cyber and cyber-attacks. 

Second we agreed on a cyber-pledge which is a kind of road map on our way in many different ways can increase and strengthen our cyber defenses.  That’s partly about protecting our own networks against cyber-attacks and partly about assisting, helping allies to improve their defenses of their own networks because the responder is the nation, then NATO is there to help and assist if needed.  An important thing with cyber is that, is that that’s something which is ongoing, because when you speak about other kind of threats there is a kind of theoretical possibility that we will have a conventional attack sometime in the future but cyber that happens almost daily against NATO Allies and NATO, so we have to defend ourselves against cyber-attacks every day and one of the key issues about that is attribution, is to tell who is behind and so increase and improve cyber-defenses is high on our agenda and Prime Minister May is very focused on that.  The U.K. is the lead nation and we work closely with the UK in addressing those challenges. 

AUDIENCE MEMBER 1:  Thanks.

. [APPLAUSE]

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3月1日分

東洋経済オンライン     http://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/160053

 「今こそ、日産のCEO職を引き継ぐのに適切な時期であると判断した」

 日産自動車は2月23日、カルロス・ゴーン社長が4月1日付けで社長とCEOを退任し、後任に西川廣人共同CEOをあてる人事を発表した。ゴーン氏は引き続き代表権のある会長を務め、ルノーや三菱自動車を含む連合全体の経営を指揮する。

 日産としては2000年6月以来、およそ17年ぶりの社長交代になる。だが記者会見はなくプレスリリースのみで、いささかあっさりした発表となった。

社長退任の予兆はあった

 もっとも、社長交代が唐突というわけでもなかった。ゴーン氏は2016年12月に日産の傘下に入った三菱自動車で代表取締役会長に就任。三菱自動車の経営に一定の労力や時間を割くことを見越して、前月の11月には生産・開発など「ものづくり」を統括するCCO(チーフコンペティティブオフィサー)だった西川氏を日産の共同CEOに昇格させて仕事を分担していた。

 またゴーン氏は日産のほか、ルノーでは会長、社長、CEOを兼務しているうえ、日産・ルノー連合の会長兼CEOにも就いており、ただでさえ多忙を極めていた。

 三菱自動車を新たに加えた日産・ルノー連合の2016年の世界販売台数は1000万台規模にまで拡大。トヨタ自動車や独フォルクスワーゲン(VW)、米ゼネラル・モーターズ(GM)と匹敵する規模を手に入れ、今後は自動運転や電動化など技術開発競争でいかに勝ち残れるかが焦点になる。

 今回の体制変更についてゴーン氏は、「連合の戦略面および事業上の進化により多くの時間と労力をかけ、連合の持つ規模による競争優位性をパートナー各社に享受させることができる」と述べ、連合経営により傾注する考えを示した。

 日産の社長兼CEOをほかの人材に任せられる状況が整ったことも大きい。かつて2兆円もの有利子負債を自動車事業で抱えた日産は1999年にルノーの傘下に入り、「再生請負人」として送りこまれたゴーン氏の大胆な経営改革で息を吹き返した。北米や中国で販売を拡大し、今年度の世界販売は提携時の2倍以上の560万台を見込む。

 2013年まで8年7か月にわたってCOO(最高執行責任者)を務め、ゴーン社長の番頭役だった志賀俊之副会長は、今回の人事について「かつてはゴーンさん1人におんぶに抱っこだった日産が強くなってきたことの裏返しでもあり嬉しい」と話す。

 2016年11月、東洋経済のインタビューで自動車産業で成し遂げたい夢を尋ねられたゴーン氏は、「日産は財務的な健全性を回復し、競争力の強い会社になった。これはもう終わったこと。引き続き強化しなければならないのは連合の力だ」と語っていた。

 日産・ルノー連合の力を強化するうえでカギを握るのは、新技術の開発速度を引き上げることだろう。

 今年1月に米ラスベガスで開かれたCES(家電見本市)に日産は初出展。基調講演を行ったゴーン社長は、「電気自動車、コネクテッドカー、自動運転といった技術を同時に1社では開発できない。社内にない技術は(社外と)協力してイノベーションを起こす」と話し、異業界を含めて他社との連携を加速させる考えを示した。自動運転技術において日産は、すでに米国のNASA(航空宇宙局)、イスラエルのモービルアイ、日本のディー・エヌ・エーとパートナーシップを結び、共同開発を進める。

 他社と連携したり、技術やプラットフォームの共用化を進めたりするうえでも、連合メンバーである日産、ルノー、三菱自、ロシアのアフトワズがバラバラに動いていては効率が悪い。

ゴーン氏は持株会社トップのような存在に

 かつてゴーン氏の下で日産役員だった部品メーカー首脳は「連合の一体経営をより強化する観点からも、ゴーンさんは持株会社のトップのような役回りに徹したいのではないか」と話す。実際、ゴーン氏が会長職に就いた三菱自ではCEOは益子修社長が担う。日産からは全幅の信頼を置く生え抜きのトレバー・マン氏をCOOとして送り込んだ。任せられる仕事はどんどん任せる姿勢だ。

 一方で出身母体のルノーではまだCEOの座にとどまっている。任期は2018年までで、そのときにゴーン氏は64歳になる。ルノーではCEOの定年は65歳だが、任期中に再任されれば4年延長ができ、ゴーン氏は68歳までCEOの職にとどまることになる。だが連合の仕事に専念したいのであれば、ルノーのCEOもあと1年ほどで退任するのかもしれない。

 今年に入って日本ではトヨタとスズキが業務提携で合意。ルノーのおひざ元であるフランスでは、PSAプジョーシトロエングループがGMの欧州子会社である独オペルや、マレーシアの国民車メーカー、プロトンの買収に意欲を示すなど、自動車業界では合従連衡が進む。ちなみにPSAの現CEOは、かつてルノーCOOとしてゴーン氏と二人三脚で経営に取り組んだカルロス・タバレス氏。ゴーン氏が意識していないはずはない。

 日産やルノーのお家芸とも呼べる電気自動車では米テスラが急速に追い上げており、3万5000ドルからの量販価格帯で新型車を2017年にも発売する計画だ。VWやトヨタもEV開発を加速させている。

 変化の激しい時代に日産・ルノー連合を今後も正しい方向に導き、競争力を引き上げることができるか、日産のトップを退任してもなお、ゴーン氏の担う責任は重い。

 「今こそ、日産のCEO職を引き継ぐのに適切な時期であると判断した」

 日産自動車は2月23日、カルロス・ゴーン社長が4月1日付けで社長とCEOを退任し、後任に西川廣人共同CEOをあてる人事を発表した。ゴーン氏は引き続き代表権のある会長を務め、ルノーや三菱自動車を含む連合全体の経営を指揮する。

 日産としては2000年6月以来、およそ17年ぶりの社長交代になる。だが記者会見はなくプレスリリースのみで、いささかあっさりした発表となった。

社長退任の予兆はあった

 もっとも、社長交代が唐突というわけでもなかった。ゴーン氏は2016年12月に日産の傘下に入った三菱自動車で代表取締役会長に就任。三菱自動車の経営に一定の労力や時間を割くことを見越して、前月の11月には生産・開発など「ものづくり」を統括するCCO(チーフコンペティティブオフィサー)だった西川氏を日産の共同CEOに昇格させて仕事を分担していた。

 またゴーン氏は日産のほか、ルノーでは会長、社長、CEOを兼務しているうえ、日産・ルノー連合の会長兼CEOにも就いており、ただでさえ多忙を極めていた。

 三菱自動車を新たに加えた日産・ルノー連合の2016年の世界販売台数は1000万台規模にまで拡大。トヨタ自動車や独フォルクスワーゲン(VW)、米ゼネラル・モーターズ(GM)と匹敵する規模を手に入れ、今後は自動運転や電動化など技術開発競争でいかに勝ち残れるかが焦点になる。

 今回の体制変更についてゴーン氏は、「連合の戦略面および事業上の進化により多くの時間と労力をかけ、連合の持つ規模による競争優位性をパートナー各社に享受させることができる」と述べ、連合経営により傾注する考えを示した。

 日産の社長兼CEOをほかの人材に任せられる状況が整ったことも大きい。かつて2兆円もの有利子負債を自動車事業で抱えた日産は1999年にルノーの傘下に入り、「再生請負人」として送りこまれたゴーン氏の大胆な経営改革で息を吹き返した。北米や中国で販売を拡大し、今年度の世界販売は提携時の2倍以上の560万台を見込む。

 2013年まで8年7か月にわたってCOO(最高執行責任者)を務め、ゴーン社長の番頭役だった志賀俊之副会長は、今回の人事について「かつてはゴーンさん1人におんぶに抱っこだった日産が強くなってきたことの裏返しでもあり嬉しい」と話す。

 2016年11月、東洋経済のインタビューで自動車産業で成し遂げたい夢を尋ねられたゴーン氏は、「日産は財務的な健全性を回復し、競争力の強い会社になった。これはもう終わったこと。引き続き強化しなければならないのは連合の力だ」と語っていた。

 日産・ルノー連合の力を強化するうえでカギを握るのは、新技術の開発速度を引き上げることだろう。

 今年1月に米ラスベガスで開かれたCES(家電見本市)に日産は初出展。基調講演を行ったゴーン社長は、「電気自動車、コネクテッドカー、自動運転といった技術を同時に1社では開発できない。社内にない技術は(社外と)協力してイノベーションを起こす」と話し、異業界を含めて他社との連携を加速させる考えを示した。自動運転技術において日産は、すでに米国のNASA(航空宇宙局)、イスラエルのモービルアイ、日本のディー・エヌ・エーとパートナーシップを結び、共同開発を進める。

 他社と連携したり、技術やプラットフォームの共用化を進めたりするうえでも、連合メンバーである日産、ルノー、三菱自、ロシアのアフトワズがバラバラに動いていては効率が悪い。

ゴーン氏は持株会社トップのような存在に

 かつてゴーン氏の下で日産役員だった部品メーカー首脳は「連合の一体経営をより強化する観点からも、ゴーンさんは持株会社のトップのような役回りに徹したいのではないか」と話す。実際、ゴーン氏が会長職に就いた三菱自ではCEOは益子修社長が担う。日産からは全幅の信頼を置く生え抜きのトレバー・マン氏をCOOとして送り込んだ。任せられる仕事はどんどん任せる姿勢だ。

 一方で出身母体のルノーではまだCEOの座にとどまっている。任期は2018年までで、そのときにゴーン氏は64歳になる。ルノーではCEOの定年は65歳だが、任期中に再任されれば4年延長ができ、ゴーン氏は68歳までCEOの職にとどまることになる。だが連合の仕事に専念したいのであれば、ルノーのCEOもあと1年ほどで退任するのかもしれない。

 今年に入って日本ではトヨタとスズキが業務提携で合意。ルノーのおひざ元であるフランスでは、PSAプジョーシトロエングループがGMの欧州子会社である独オペルや、マレーシアの国民車メーカー、プロトンの買収に意欲を示すなど、自動車業界では合従連衡が進む。ちなみにPSAの現CEOは、かつてルノーCOOとしてゴーン氏と二人三脚で経営に取り組んだカルロス・タバレス氏。ゴーン氏が意識していないはずはない。

 日産やルノーのお家芸とも呼べる電気自動車では米テスラが急速に追い上げており、3万5000ドルからの量販価格帯で新型車を2017年にも発売する計画だ。VWやトヨタもEV開発を加速させている。

 変化の激しい時代に日産・ルノー連合を今後も正しい方向に導き、競争力を引き上げることができるか、日産のトップを退任してもなお、ゴーン氏の担う責任は重い。

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Davos 2017: An Insight, An Idea with Alibaba Founder, Jack Ma

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tULsBfcvQuY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsQ7ysVt-0A

 

Andrew Ross Sorkin – Columnist for The New York Times (Interviewer)

Jack Ma – Founder and Executive Chairman of Alibaba Group

 

Interviewer: It is my privilege to be here this evening with Jack Ma, one of the great entrepreneurs of our time, of course, the founder of Alibaba and we have so many things to talk about over the next half an hour. And of course, we also want to try to get to your questions as well. We’re going to talk about Alibaba, of course, but also China, the Trump world that we all live in, globalization trade and so many other issues. But, first of all, thank you for joining us.

Jack Ma: Thank you so much.

Interviewer: Let me start with this, which is to say that you just spent some time inside Trump Tower, and went to go visit with Donald —

Jack Ma: Yeah.

Interviewer: Our President elect in the United States. Tell us about that meeting.

Jack Ma: Well, it’s a very productive meeting, much better than I thought, than I expected.

Interviewer: What did you expect?

Jack Ma: Well, I heard a lot and I watched like everybody, I watched all the news and heard a lot about him. So when I go inside, I saw, um, anything that — but he’s pretty sort of open minded, listened what I talked. So I think I’m very happy about the results, and finally, when he said, he offered, he said, ‘Jack, let me walk you down’. It seemed he’s very happy about the results we had.

Interviewer: Can I ask? How does a meeting like that happen? Do you call him, does he call you? Well, how does this take place?

Jack Ma: Well, that’s the question I’m asking myself, because some day I got some requests from people say, ‘Jack, do you want a meeting with the president-elect?’ I’d say, ‘Is that true enough?’ Because I’m not ready for that, because — I don’t know what to talk about. And then a few days later I got another request, I got several requests and then I saw one e-mail which was from a friend, it’s very sort of specific, I thought about it. I think yes, maybe I should go and I have to talk. And at least, I think president elect on the Trump would be happy to hear what I want to talk about. So I went.

 
Interviewer: And what did you tell him?

Jack Ma: Talk about the small business, talk about agricultural products, talk about the trade between China and the USA. Special focus on telling about how can we bring the small business in America sell them to China, to Asia, through our network, which can create a lot of jobs for them.

Interviewer: And you committed to create, what you say is, one million jobs in the United States over the next five years. Now that’s not a million jobs that Alibaba itself but you’re not hiring a million people.

Jack Ma: No, no, we, all totally Alibaba employee put together is like 45,000 people, we cannot hire 1 million. I cannot imagine I can manage 1 million people.

Interviewer: Explain to us how you think about the US-China relationship, given some of the comments that Donald Trump has made about China being a currency manipulator? Did that come up during your meeting?

Jack Ma: Well, I think, first, in America there is a freedom of speech, right? So he can say whatever he want and I respect and I understand. But, of course, I have my views. We did not debate about the China-US trade or manipulation, we did not debate. We did not talk. Actually we agreed on something: small business, developing the Midwest America, helping the farmers there, small business there to export into China. So we all agreed. But something that we did not discuss about the American job losing to China or Mexico, and this — can I share with you my ideas?

 
Interviewer: Please.

Jack Ma: First, I think 30 years ago, when I just graduated from university, I heard American wonderful strategy. They outsourced the manufacturing job, service jobs. They outsourced the manufacturing to Mexico and China, outsourced the service jobs to India. There’s a book called The World Is Flat.

Interviewer: Tom Friedman, at the New York Times.

Jack Ma: And I think it’s a perfect strategy. You know that the American said, ‘We just want to control the IP, we just want the technology, we just want the brand and leave the lower end jobs for the world. Great strategy. And the second is that the American international companies made millions and millions of dollars from globalization, the top 10 — top 100 companies in America; amazing. I remember when I graduate from university, I tried to buy a beeper, the Motorola beeper cost me $250. My pay at that time was $10 a month as a teacher. And the cost of making that beeper is only $8 for a chip.

So the past 30 years, IBM, Cisco, Microsoft, they made a tons of them and the money, the profit they made are much more than the four largest banks in China put together — China Mobile, China Unicom and whatever you name it, put together, still these multinational companies made more money. So their market cap grew more than 100 times in the past 30 years. But where did the money go? This is what I’m curious, because, as a business people I always care about the balance sheet: where is the money coming, where does the money go?

Past 30 years, America had 13 wars, spending $14.2 trillion, the money going there. What if they spent a part of their money on building of the infrastructure, helping the white collars and blue collars? No matter how strategy good it is, you’re supposed to spend money on your own people, right? Not everybody can pass Harvard — like me, not good at education, right? We should spend money on those people who are not good at schooling.

 

And the other money which I am curious about is that when I was young, I heard America is about Ford, Boeing, those big manufacturing companies. The last 10, 20 years what I heard about is Silicon Valley and Wall Street. The money go to the Wall Street. And what happened year 2008? The financial crisis wiped out $19.2 trillion USA alone. They wiped out all of the white collars and destroyed 34 million jobs globally. So what if the money — it’s not on Wall Street. What if the money spent on the middle east, mid-west of the United States? Developing the industry there, that could be changed a lot. So it’s not the other countries steal jobs from you guys. It is your strategy.

Interviewer: OK, but —

Jack Ma: But you do not distribute the money and things in a proper way.

Interviewer: This is what I — and now we are having a backlash. And that backlash is a rebuke of globalization in so much of the conversation frankly that we have here. And that backlash is happening in the United States but I will say President Xi was here yesterday, you had lunch with him. And he was quoting Abraham Lincoln. What did you make of that?

Jack Ma: Well, I would say that the globalization is a great stuff. It’s the USA, it’s developed countries that teach us how to do globalization. I remember 2002 when China joined the WTO, everybody in China was so worried. Me? I was worried because what if all the international products come to China, destroy our industry and we lose our job. So convinced China, after 20 years, then you guys are telling, say, this is a terrible thing. I believe globalization is good but globalization need to be improved. This is Donald Trump, president elect want to solve the problems, that globalization I think should be inclusive globalization.

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The Universe in a Nutshell

http://www.floatinguniversity.com/lectures-kaku

 

My name is Professor Michio Kaku.  I’m a professor of theoretical physics at the City University of New York and I specialize in something called string theory.  I’m a physicist.
 

Some people ask me the question, “What has physics done for me lately?  I mean, do I get better color television, do I get better internet reception with physics?”  And the answer is yes.  You see, physics is at the very foundation of matter and energy.  We physicists invented the laser beam, we invented the transistor.  We helped to create the first computer.  We helped to construct the internet.  We wrote the World Wide Web.  In addition, we also helped to invent television, radio, radar, microwaves, not to mention MRI scans, PET scans, x-rays.  In other words, almost everything you see in your living room, almost everything you see in a modern hospital, at some point or other, can be traced to a physicist.

Now, I got interested in physics when I was a child.  When I was a child of eight, something happened to me that changed my life and I wanted to be part of this grand search for a theory of everything.  When I was eight, a great scientist had just died.  I still remember my elementary school teacher coming into the room and announcing that the greatest scientist of our era has just passed away.  And that day, every newspaper published a picture of his desk.  The desk of Albert Einstein.  And the caption said, I’ll never forget, “The unfinished manuscript of the greatest work of the greatest scientist of our time.”  And I said to myself, “Why couldn’t he finish it?  I mean, what’s so hard?  It’s a homework problem, right?  Why didn’t he ask his mother?  Why can’t he finish this problem?”  So as a child of eight, I decided to find out what was this problem.

Years later, I began to realize that it was the theory of everything, the Unified Field Theory.
 
Unified Field Theory: A Theory of Everything
 
An equation one inch long that would summarize all the physical forces in the universe.  An equation like E=mc².  That equation is half an inch long and that equation unlocks the secret of the stars.  Why do the stars shine?  Why does the galaxy light up?  Why do we have energy on the earth?  All of it tied to an equation half an inch long.

But then there was another thing that happened to me when I was around eight years old.  I got hooked on the Saturday morning TV shows.  In particular, Flash Gordon.  And I was hooked.  I mean, every Saturday morning watching programs about alien from outer space, star ships, ray guns, invisibility shields, cities in the sky, that was for me.  But after a few years, I began to notice something.  First of all, I began to notice that well, I didn’t have blond hair and blue eyes, I didn’t have muscles like Flash Gordon, but it was a scientist who made the series work.  In particular, a physicist.  He was the one who discovered the ray gun, the star ships.  He was the one who created the city in the sky.  He was the one who created the invisibility shield.  And then I realized something else.  If you want to understand the future, you have to understand physics.  Physics is at the foundation of all the gadgetry, the wizardry, all the marvels of the technological age, all of it can be traced to the work of a physicist.  Including computers, also biotechnology.  All of that can eventually traced down to physics.
 
Physics and the Impossible

Most of science fiction is in fact well within the laws of physics, but possible within maybe 100 years.  And then we have type two impossibilities, impossibilities that may take 1,000 years or more.  That includes time travel, warp drive, higher dimensions, portals through space and time, star gates, worm holes.  That’s type two.  And then we have type three, and those are things which simply violate all the known laws of physics, and they’re very few of them.

So in my life I’ve had two great passions.  First is to help complete Einstein’s dream of a theory of everything.  An equation one inch long that would allow us to, “Read the mind of God.”  

But the second passion of my life is to see the future.

You know, if you were to meet your grandparents at the year 1900, they were dirt farmers back then.  They didn’t live much beyond the age of 40, on average.  Long distance communication in the year 1900 was yelling at your neighbor.  And yet, if they could see you now, with iPads and iPods and satellites and GPS and laser beams, how would they view you?  They would view you as a wizard or sorcerer.

However, if we can now meet our grandkids of the year 2100, how would we view them?  We would view them as gods, like in Greek mythology.  Zeus could control objects around him by pure thought.  Materialize objects just by thinking.  And there’re perks to being a Greek god, Venus had a perfect body, a timeless body.  And we are beginning now to unravel the genetics at the molecular level, of the aging process.  And then Apollo, he had a chariot that he could ride across the heavens.  We will finally have that flying horse, I mean, that, we will have that flying car that we’ve always wanted to have in our garage.  We will be able to create life forms that don’t exist today.

And so in other words, if you want to see the future, you have to understand physics, and you have to realize that by the year 2100, we will have the power of the gods.  

To paraphrase Arthur C. Clark, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from divinity.”

So let’s now begin our story.  
 
The History of Physics

The history of physics is the history of modern civilization.  Before Isaac Newton, before Galileo, we were shrouded with the mysteries of superstition.  People believed in all sorts of different kinds of spirits and demons.  What made the planets move?  Why do things interact with other things?  It was a mystery.

So, back in the Middle Ages, for example, people read the works of Aristotle.  And Aristotle asked the question, “Why do objects move toward the earth?  And that’s because,” he said, “objects yearn, yearn to be united with the earth.   And why do objects slow down when you put them in motion?  Objects in motion slow down because they get tired.”  These are the works of Aristotle, which held sway for almost 2,000 years until the beginning of modern physics with Galileo and Isaac Newton.

So, when the ancients looked at the sky, the sky was full of mystery and wonder, and in the year 1066, the most important date on the British calendar, there was a comet, a comet which sailed over the battlefield of Hastings.  It frightened the troops of King Harold, and a young man from Normandy, swept into England and defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings, creating the modern British monarchy.  In fact, British history dates to 1066 with William the Conqueror.

But the question is, where did the comet come from?  What was this comet that mysteriously paved the way for the coming of the British monarchy?

Well, believe it or not, that same comet, the very same comet that initiated the British monarchy, sailed over London once again in 1682.  This time, everyone was asking the question, “Where do comets come from?  Do they signal the death of the king?  Why do we have messengers from heavens in the sky?”  Well, one man dared to penetrate the secrets of comets, and that was Isaac Newton.  In fact, when Isaac Newton was only 23 years old, he stumbled upon the universal force of gravitation.

According to one story, he was walking on his estate in Woolsthorpe, and he saw an apple fall.  And then Isaac Newton saw the moon, and then he asked the key question which helped to unlock the heavens.  If apples falls, does the moon also fall?  And the answer was, “Yes.”  And answer overturned thousands of years of mystery and speculation about the motions of the heavens.  The moon is in freefall, just like an apple.  The moon is constantly falling toward the earth.  It doesn’t hit the earth, because it spins around the earth, and the earth is round, but it’s acting under a force, a force of gravity.

So Newton immediately tried to work out the mathematics and he realized that the mathematics of the 1600’s was not sufficient to work out the motion of a falling moon.  So what did Isaac Newton do?  When he was 23 years old, not only did he stumble upon the force of gravity, but he also created calculus.  In fact, he created at the rate at which you learn it, when you are a freshman in college.  And why did he create calculus?  To calculate the motion of a falling moon.  The mathematics of his age was incapable of calculating the trajectories of objects moving under an inverse square force field, and that’s what Isaac Newton did.  He worked out the motion of the moon.  And then he realized that if he understands the moon, he also understands the motion of the planets in the solar system.  And Isaac Newton invented a new telescope.  It was the reflecting telescope and he was tracking the motion of this comet.

Well, it turns out that everyone was talking about the comet, including a rather wealthy Englishman by the name of Edmund Haley.  Everyone was talking about the comet, so Edmund Haley, being a wealthy merchant, decided to make a trip to Cambridge to talk to England’s illustrious scientist, Sir Isaac Newton.  Well, Edmund Haley asked Newton, “What do you make of this comet?  No one understands comets, they’re a mystery.  They’ve been fascinating people for centuries, for millennia, what are your thoughts?”  And then, I paraphrase, but Isaac Newton said something like this, he said, “Oh, that’s easy.  That comet is moving at a perfect ellipse.  It’s moving in an inverse square force field.  I’ve been tracking it every day with my reflecting telescope and the path of that comet conforms to my mathematics exactly.”  And of course, we don’t know what Edmund Haley’s reaction was, but I paraphrase, he must have said something like this, he said, “For God’s sake, man, why don’t you publish the greatest work in all of scientific history?  If correct, you have decoded the secret of the stars, the secret of the heavens.  Nobody understands where comets come from.”  And then Newton responded and said, “Oh, well, it costs too much.  I mean, I’m not a wealthy man, it would cost too much to summarize this calculus that I’ve invented and to work out all the motion of the stars.”  And then Haley must have said this, he must have said, “Mr. Newton, I am a wealthy man.  I have made my fortune in commerce.  I will pay for the publication of the greatest scientific work in any language.”  And it was Principia.  The principals, the mathematical principals that guide the heavens.  

Believe it or not, this is perhaps one of the most important works ever written by a human being in the 100,000 years since we evolved from Africa.  Realize that this book sets into motion a physics of the universe.  Forces that control the motion of the planets, forces which can be calculated, forces which govern the motion of cannonballs, rockets, pebbles, everything that moves, moves according to the laws of motion and the calculus of Sir Isaac Newton.

In fact, even today, when we launch our space probes, we don’t use Einstein’s equations, they only apply when you get near the speed of light or near a black hole.  We use Newton’s laws of gravity.  They are so precise that when we shoot a space probe right past the rings of Saturn, we use exactly the same equations that Isaac Newton unraveled in the 1600’s.  That’s why we have glorious photographs of the rings of Saturn.  That’s why we have fly-by’s right past Neptune.  That’s why we’ve been able to unravel the secrets of the solar system, compliments of the laws of motion of Isaac Newton.

So what Newton did was not only did he set into motion the ability to calculate planets, he also set into motion a mechanics.  Machines now operated upon well-defined laws.  Newton’s three laws of motion.  The first law of motion says that objects in motion stay in motion forever, unless acted on by an outside force.  You see that in an ice skating rink.  You should a puck and it goes all the way down forever, unless acted upon by an outside force.  That’s different from Aristotle’s law of motion.  Aristotle said, “Objects in motion eventually stop, because they get tired.”  Newton says, “Objects in motion stay in motion forever.”  Sailing past Pluto, unless acted on by an outside force.

The second law of motion says, force is mass times acceleration.  And that equation made possible the Industrial Revolution.  Steam engines, locomotives, factories, machines, all of it due to the mechanics set into motion by Isaac Newton’s second law of motion, force is equal to mass times acceleration.

And then Newton had a third law of motion.  For every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction, that’s the law of rockets.  That’s why we have rockets that can sail into outer space.  In fact, Newton was the first human who could actually calculate how fast you have to run to jump to the moon.  That was a number that mystified ancients.  How do you get to the moon?  Can you jump to the moon?  Well, Newton could have calculated that number, 25,000 miles per hour, that’s the escape velocity of the earth, a number which could have been calculated by Isaac Newton himself.

So the lesson here is, when scientists unravel the first force of the universe, gravity, that set into motion the Industrial Revolution.  A revolution which toppled the kings and queens of Europe, which displaced feudalism, ushering in the modern age.  All because a 23-year-old gentleman looked up and asked the question, “Does the moon also fall?”

So, rockets, the motion of planets, and even buildings in Manhattan, all of them owe their existence to Newton’s laws of motion.

You know, when I was a kid growing up in California, I would see pictures of the Empire State Building.  And I said to myself, “How could that possibly build such a big building and not know that it’s going to fall?  I mean, why doesn’t it fall?  They didn’t build scale models of the thing, you couldn’t have an Empire State Building that big to test whether it’s going to fall or not.  How did they know ahead of time that that building wouldn’t fall?  And the answer is:  Newton’s laws of motion.

In fact, today, I teach Newton’s laws of motion, and you can actually calculate the forces on every single brick of the empire state building.  Every screw, every bolt, you can calculate precisely the tension on every single fragment of the Empire State Building, using Newton’s second law of motion, force is mass times acceleration.

That was the first force, when Newton unraveled the force of gravity, it ushered in the Industrial Revolution.  Now, let’s take a look at the second force, an even greater force which has touched all of our lives, and that is the electromagnetic force.  

Ever since humans saw lightening bolts light up the sky, ever since they were terrified by the sound of thunder, they’ve been asking, “Do the gods propel lightening bolts and create thunder?  Are they angry at us?”

Well, as time went by, scientists began to realize that the lightening bolts and the thunder can be duplicated on the earth.  That we can actually create many lightening bolts using electricity.  And with magnets, we can also unleash a new kind of force, the force of electricity and magnetism.

But it wasn’t until the 1800’s that finally we begin to unlock the second great force which rules the universe, the electromagnetic force.
So this helped to usher in the age of discovery.  Realize that before the compass, if you sailed the ocean blue, you would get lost.  With the compass knowing the position of the stars, you can then begin to navigate over hundreds, thousands of miles in the ocean.  So the discovery of compasses by the Chinese helped to usher in the Age of Discovery.

And when people like Michael Faraday, who did this, Michael Faraday would give Christmas lectures in London, fascinating everyone from adults to children.  And he would demonstrate the incredible properties of electricity.

Some people, for example, ask a simple question.  If you’re in a car or an airplane, you get hit by a lightening bolt, why don’t you all get electrocuted?  Why don’t you all die?

Well, Faraday answered the question.  He would create a cage for children.  He would walk into this steel cage, electrify it, and he wouldn’t get electrocuted at all.  That’s called a Faraday cage and every time you walk into  metal structure, you get shielded by this metal object and that’s called a Faraday cage.  Well, what Michael Faraday did was, he helped to unleash the second great revolution with something calls Faraday’s Law.  If I take a wire and I move a wire in a magnetic field, the magnetic field pushes the electrons in the magnet, creating an electrical current.  That simple idea unleashed the electric revolution.  A moving wire in a magnetic field, has this electrons pushed, creating a current, and that’s why we have hydro-electric generators.  That’s why we have dams that can produce enormous amounts of power.  That’s why people build nuclear power plants.  That’s why we have room(?) right now.  All of it due to the simple observation that a wire moving at a magnetic field, has its electrons pushed, creating an electric current.

On a very small scale, you use that in your bicycle.  When you put a bicycle lamp on your bicycle, the turning of the wheel spins a magnet.  The magnet then pushes electrons in a wire and that’s why electricity lights up in your bicycle lamp.  That’s exactly the same principal that lights up your house via a hydroelectric dam.  So in other words, electricity and magnetism were unified into a single force.  We once thought that electricity and magnetism were separate.  Now we know they are in fact the same force.

So if a moving magnet can create an electric field, this means that a moving electric field can create a magnetic field.  But if they can create each other, why can’t they oscillate and create a wave?  So that moving electric fields create magnetic fields, create electric fields, create magnetic fields, infinitum to create a wave?  

Well, around the time of the American Civil War, a mathematical physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, calculated, using the work of Faraday, the velocity of this wave, that electricity turns to magnetism, turns to electricity, turns to magnetism, creating a wave, and he calculated the velocity of the wave.  And in one of the greatest works in the history of humanity, in one of the greatest breakthroughs of all time, James Clerk Maxwell calculated the velocity of this wave and found out it was the velocity of light.  And then he made this incredible discovery, this is light.  That’s what light is.  It doesn’t by accident travel at the speed of electricity, it is light itself.

If I have a light beam right here and I could look at it with a super-microscope, I would see oscillating electric fields, magnetic fields, turning into each other creating a wave, and that wave is called light.

And the equations were written down by James Clerk Maxwell.  Unfortunately, Michael Faraday himself did not have a formal education.  He could not put into mathematical form his own work.  James Clerk Maxwell was a theoretical physicist, just like myself.  He wrote down the mathematical physics of oscillating electric fields and magnetic fields and they are called Maxwell’s equations.  These equations have to be memorized by every physicist in grad school.  You cannot get your PhD without memorizing these equations.  Every engineer who designs radio, radar, every engineer who deals with radar and radio has to memorize these equations.  And so, if you go to Berkley, where I got my PhD, you can buy a t-shirt which says, “In the beginning God said, the four-dimensional divergence of an antisymmetric, second rank tensor equals zero, and there was light, and it was good.  And on the seventh day he rested.”  Ladies and gentlemen, this is the equation for light.

In the same way that Newton found a one inch equation that governed the motion of the planets, in the same way that Maxwell discovered a one inch equation that unlocked the secret of light, we physicists today want to have a one inch equation that summarize all physical reality.

Well, Michael Faraday in his own lifetime was heralded as a great scientist, and how many scientists do you know appear on money?  Well, there he is, on the British 20-pound note.  So it’s very rare that a scientist appears on a nation’s currency, but so great was a contribution of Michael Faraday that there he is on the 20-pound note.
  
The Electromagnetic Revolution and The Nuclear Age

The consequences of the electromagnetic revolution touch all of us.  This is a picture of the earth from outer space.  Look at this picture.  Europe electrified, you can actually see the fruits of all of our efforts to create electricity, to energize our lives, in one picture, seeing the earth from outer space.  So let’s now talk about how Faraday and Maxwell’s work touches your life as well.

This is the internet.  The internet is a simple byproduct of the electromagnetic force.  It’s a solution of Maxwell’s equations and you can see that where there is the internet, there is prosperity.  There is science, there’s entertainment, there’s economic activity.  Where there’s no internet, there’s poverty.  And in the future, the internet will be miniaturized and it will be placed in your glasses.  Your glasses will recognize people’s faces and display their biography next to the image as you talk to them, and then when they speak Chinese to you, your glasses will translate Chinese into English and print out subtitles right beneath their image.  So in the future, you will know exactly who you are talking to without even talking to them, and this means that at a cocktail party, if you’re looking for a job, but you don’t know who the heavy hitters are, in the future you will know exactly who to suck up to.

Well, maybe you don’t want to look like a refugee from Star Trek, kids of course love the electromagnetic force, they want to make it fashionable.  Fashion models will adopt the technology, kids will say, “What?  You’re not wired up?  You can’t download videos and websites on your glasses?  What’s wrong with you?”

So, the electromagnetic force can be beamed right into your eyes via laser beams, or through an eyepiece, or by using the glasses as a screen.  These are internet glasses, this is the future of your home office, the future of your home entertainment center.

But let’s say you don’t like glasses.  Let’s say you don’t wear glasses.  Then how will you access the internet, the electromagnetic force of the future?  You will do it in your contact lens.  You will blink and you will go online.  And who will guy these internet contact lenses?  College students studying for final examinations.  They will blink and they will see all the answers appear in their contact lens.

Who else will buy these internet contact lenses?  Artists will buy them.  Because by moving their hands, they will make the electromagnetic force turn into all the different kinds of artistic endeavors they engage in.  Paintings, drawings, sculptures, all done by waving their hands.

Not to mention that architects will line up to get these things.  Instead of having to redesign a model every time they move something, they’ll simply wave their hands and their buildings, their skyscrapers, will simply rearrange themselves.

Tourists will line up for these glasses because via the electromagnetic force, you will see the Roman Empire resurrected as you walk through the streets of Rome looking at the ruins.  So tourists will be able to resurrect all the wonders of the past.

And the military, hey, let’s be blunt about this.  The military sees the importance of this, the military is also perfecting their version of this, and I had a chance to take a film crew from the Science Channel, fly down to Fort Benning, Georgia, and have a demonstration of the military’s version.  You put on a helmet, there’s an eyepiece on the helmet, you flick the eyepiece down and in a half a second, you see now the entire battlefield on the internet right inside your eyepiece.  Friendly forces, enemy forces, airplanes, artillery, all of it, the battlefield laid out for you right inside your lens.  All of it, compliments of Faraday’s electromagnetic force.

And of course, you’ve seen this before, where have you seen this before?  This is the governor of California in a very bad mood.  This is the Terminator robot.  And how did the Terminator robot view you?  When the Terminator robot looked at you, there were subtitles giving you the name of the person you were looking at.  Here is John Connor located by internet contact lenses inside a robot.  So you’ve seen this before.  This is called augmented reality and in the future, that’s where we will spend most of our life.  We will spend most of our life in augmented reality.  When we blink, we can download any movie, any website, any piece of information.  We blink, we can recognize any object, recognize any person, translate any language, this is the future, compliments of Faraday’s electromagnetic force.

This is your living room, by the way, of the future.  You’re going to be surrounded by the electromagnetic force, 360 degrees surrounded by wall screens and how will you decorate your room?  Well, you’ll decorate your room with images, cell phone screens, this is a typical cell phone of the future, and wallpaper of the future will be flexible.  It turns out that transistors can be made out of plastic.  And with plastic transistors come e-paper, electronic paper.  Paper that you can scroll right out of your cell phone, or for that matter, decorate your home.  This is the future of wallpaper.  In the future, chips will only cost a penny, because we can manufacturer tinier and tinier transistors, and use Faraday’s electromagnetic force in plastic to create flexible paper.  So in the future, you will go to the wall and say, “Change color.  I don’t like this color, I don’t like this design,” so redecorating your house has never been so simple.

This will also affect your love life.  On Friday night, we all know what college students when there’s no date, they get stone drunk.  In the future, they’ll go to the wall, conjure up a wall screen, and say, “Mirror, mirror on the wall, who’s available tonight?”  The wall screen will then contact all the other wall screens of everyone else who’s lonely that night, the wall screen knows the desires that you want, the kind of person you like to go out with, and bingo!  You have a date.  So in the future, this will also change your love life.

And it’ll also affect medicine.  You will have Faraday’s electromagnetic force inside your body.  This is a pill.  It has a chip in it, the chip is smaller than an aspirin pill, it also has a TV camera, and a magnet.  When you swallow it, the magnet guides the camera, taking pictures of your stomach, your intestines, because we all know what middle aged men fear the most, colonoscopies.  And this gives new meaning for the expression, Intel Inside.

Now, let’s talk about the next great forces which rule the universe.  We talked about gravity, which allows us to calculate the motion of the planets.  The mechanics created by Newton helped to unleash the Industrial Revolution.  Michael Faraday worked out the electromagnetic force, which gave us the wonders of the electric age.  And now, let’s talk about the nuclear age, the stars and the sun.  People have been fascinated by the sun, Apollo was the god that strode across the heavens in his fiery chariot.  But hey, when you calculate how long coal or oil will burn like the sun, you realize that in just a few hundred years, the sun would burn to a crisp.  So what could possibly last for billions of years?  There must be a new force, a nuclear force.

Einstein and others helped to unravel the secret of the stars.  The nuclear force comes in two types, weak and strong.  Both of them are involved in the creation of the sun.  The equation which allows for the liberation of energy is Einstein’s famous equation, E=mc².

What Einstein showed was that the faster you move, the heavier you get.  So your weight is not a constant.  When you move very rapidly, you get heavier, something which we measure every day in the laboratory.  Now, this means that the energy of motion transformed into mass, because you get heavier.  Now, listen carefully.  The faster you move, the heavier you get.  Which means that the energy of motion, “E” turns into “m”, your mass.  And the relationship between E and m is very simple, it takes one second to write it down on a sheet of paper, it is exactly E=mc².

So the derivation of one of the greatest equations of all time takes less than a page.  Once you understand the basic principal behind relativity, bingo!  The equation just falls right out.

So the nuclear force helped to explain the secret of the sun.  But it also created a Pandora’s box, because inside the nucleus of the atom, are particles.  And when you smash these particles, what do you get?  More particles.  And when you smash them, what do you get?  More particles.  In fact, we are drowning in subatomic particles, hundreds, thousands of subatomic particles every time we smash atoms.

Now, we smash atoms using something called atom smashers, or particle accelerators.  I built my own particle accelerator when I was in high school.  When I was in high school, I went to my mom one day and I said, “Can I have permission to build a 2.3 million electron volt betatron particle accelerator in the garage?”  And my mom said, “Sure, why not?  And don’t forget to take out the garbage.”

So I went to Westinghouse, and as a high school kid, I asked for 400 pounds of transformer steel.  I asked for 22 miles of copper wire, because I wanted to create a 6 kilowatt, 10,000 GOz magnetic field to energize my atom smasher.  With 22 miles of copper wire, how could you wind it?  We did it on the high school football field.  I put 22 miles of copper wire on the goal post, gave it to my mother, she ran to the 50-yard line, unraveling the spool of wire, she gave it to my father, who then ran to the goal post, and we wound 22 miles of copper wire on the high school football field.

Well, finally my atom smasher was ready.  It consumed 6 kilowatts of power, that’s every single ounce of power that my house could deliver.  I plugged my ears, I closed my eyes, I turned on the power, and I heard this huge crackling sound as 6 kilowatts of power surged through my capacity bang.  And then I heard a pop, pop, pop sound as I blew out every single circuit breaker in the house.  The whole house was plunged in darkness.  My poor mom, every time she’d come home, she would see the lights flicker and die.  And she must have wondered, “Why couldn’t I have a son who plays baseball?  Why can’t he learn basketball?  And for God’s sake, why can’t he find a nice Japanese girl?  I mean, why does he have to build these machines in the garage?”

Well, these machines that I built in my garage earned the attention of a physicist.  And my career got a head start.  This physicist helped to build the atomic bomb, and he arranged for me to get a scholarship to Harvard.  He knew exactly what I was doing.  I didn’t have to explain to him that I was experimenting with anti-matter.  I was creating anti-electrons in my mom’s garage and using atom smashers to eventually create beams of anti-matter, he knew exactly what I was doing.  

Well, his name was Edward Teller, father of the hydrogen bomb.  But, hey, that’s another story.

Antimatter is the opposite of matter, it has the opposite charge.  So an electron has negative charge, the positron, or anti-electron, has positive charge.  This means that you can now create anti-molecules and anti-atoms.  Anti-hydrogen was made at CERN outside Geneva, Switzerland, and also at Fermi Lab outside Chicago, where they have anti-electrons circulating around anti-protons.

And in Brookhaven National Laboratory in Long Island just recently, they detected anti-helium.  We have two anti-protons with two anti-neutrons to create anti-helium.  So in principal, you can create anti-people, anti-universes, anti-everything.  For every piece of matter, there’s a counterpart which is made out of antimatter.  And when the two collide, by the way, it releases the greatest energy source in the universe.
So the collision of matter and antimatter releases energy, which may one day take us to the stars.  It is 100% conversion of matter to energy by Einstein’s equations, E=mc².

Continue to Page 2

http://www.floatinguniversity.com/kaku-transcript

 

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2月15日
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jRdHbHdC4tQ
門川大作京都市長がTEDx Kyotoで話されました

 

2月22日
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBc7ht7ERUU
竹中平蔵氏「世界を舞台に活躍する君たちへ」

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_BFAC6i4n0

ダボスでのアリババ&IOCバッハ会長の記者

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8mAPA3YKC_A
京都の禅寺、妙心寺退蔵院の副住職、松山大耕師のお話です。


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPnLUWjX-GE 
岸田文雄・外務大臣~世界で日本が存在感を上げるために必要なこと

 

 

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都政広報番組 東京クラッソ!NEO『小池知事が語る!TOKYOライフ・ワーク・バランス』

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NniLPAHsf80

 

<時事放談>小池百合子+野田聖子「トランプ・小池新党・女性総理」  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0EOfb1L-Pik

 

第1回「ICT先進都市・東京のあり方懇談会」  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_oE8Dy5idY

 

第1回 東京未来ビジョン懇談会  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zv5N16dsptA

 

【平成29年1月27日】小池都知事 定例記者会見  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6z0_0FApGcI

 

小池百合子都知事が定例会見 豊洲移転や住民訴訟対応について(2017年1月20日)  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gsa1jddJJto

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Trump Press Conference with British PM Theresa May (Full Presser) | ABC News

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zb-pUW7R5XQ

 

President Donald J. Trump: “Thank you very much.  I am honored to have Prime Minister Theresa May here for our first official visit from a foreign leader.  This is our first visit, so -- great honor. 

The special relationship between our two countries has been one of the great forces in history for justice and for peace.  And, by the way, my mother was born in Scotland -- Stornoway -- which is serious Scotland. 

Today, the United States renews our deep bond with Britain -- military, financial, cultural, and political.  We have one of the great bonds.  We pledge our lasting support to this most special relationship.  Together, America and the United Kingdom are a beacon for prosperity and the rule of law.  That is why the United States respects the sovereignty of the British people and their right of self-determination.  A free and independent Britain is a blessing to the world, and our relationship has never been stronger.

Both America and Britain understand that governments must be responsive to everyday working people, that governments must represent their own citizens. 

Madam Prime Minister, we look forward to working closely with you as we strengthen our mutual ties in commerce, business and foreign affairs.  Great days lie ahead for our two peoples and our two countries.

On behalf of our nation, I thank you for joining us here today.  It’s a really great honor.  Thank you very much.”

Prime Minister Theresa May: “Well, thank you very much, Mr. President.  And can I start by saying that I’m so pleased that I’ve been able to be here today.  And thank you for inviting me so soon after your inauguration.  And I’m delighted to be able to congratulate you on what was a stunning election victory. 

And, as you say, the invitation is an indication of the strength and importance of the special relationship that exists between our two countries -- a relationship based on the bonds of history, of family, kinship and common interest.  And in a further sign of the importance of that relationship, I have today been able to convey Her Majesty The Queen’s hope that President Trump and the First Lady would pay a state visit to the United Kingdom later this year.  And I’m delighted that the President has accepted that invitation.

Now, today, we're discussing a number of topics, and there’s much on which we agree.  The President has mentioned foreign policy.  We're discussing how we can work even more closely together in order to take on and defeat Daesh and the ideology of Islamist extremism wherever it’s found.

Our two nations are already leading efforts to face up to this challenge, and we’re making progress with Daesh losing territory and fighters, but we need to redouble our efforts.  And today, we are discussing how we can do this by deepening intelligence and security cooperation and, critically, by stepping up our efforts to counter Daesh in cyberspace.  Because we know we will not eradicate this threat until we defeat the idea -- the ideology that lies behind it.

Our talks will be continuing later.  I’m sure we’ll discuss other topics -- Syria and Russia.

On defense and security cooperation, we are united in our recognition of NATO as the bulwark of our collective defense.  And today, we’ve reaffirmed our unshakeable commitment to this alliance.  Mr. President, I think you said -- you confirmed that you’re 100 percent behind NATO.  But we’re also discussing the importance of NATO continuing to ensure it is as equipped to fight terrorism and cyber warfare as it is to fight more conventional forms of war.

And I’ve agreed to continue my efforts to encourage my fellow European leaders to deliver on their commitments to spend 2 percent of their GDP on defense so that the burden is more fairly shared.  It’s only by investing properly in our defense that we can ensure we’re properly equipped to face our shared challenges together.

And finally, the President and I have mentioned future economic cooperation and trade.  Trade between our two countries is already worth over $150 billion pounds a year.  The U.S. is the single-biggest source of inward investment to the UK, and together we’ve around $1 trillion invested in each other’s economies.  And the UK-U.S. defense relationship is the broadest, deepest, and most advanced of any two countries sharing military hardware and expertise.  And I think the President and I are ambitious to build on this relationship in order to grow our respective economies, provide the high-skilled, high-paid jobs of the future for working people across America and across the UK.

And so we are discussing how we can establish a trade negotiation agreement, take forward immediate, high-level talks, lay the groundwork for a UK-U.S. trade agreement, and identify the practical steps we can take now in order to enable companies in both countries to trade and do business with one another more easily. 

And I’m convinced that a trade deal between the U.S. and the UK is in the national interest of both countries and will cement the crucial relationship that exists between us, particularly as the UK leaves the European Union and reaches out to the world.

Today’s talks I think are a significant moment for President Trump and I to build our relationship.  And I look forward to continuing to work with you as we deliver on the promises of freedom and prosperity for all the people of our respective countries.”

 

https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/01/27/president-trump-and-prime-minister-mays-opening-remarks

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FULL EVENT: President Donald J. Trump & VP Mike Pence Deliver Remarks At CIA Headquarters 1/21/17

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xagAlOXT9Wk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsbO5NCJvIw

 

VICE PRESIDENT PENCE:  Thank you to the Acting Director Meroe Park.  Thank you for 27 years serving the United States of America here at CIA.  (Applause.) 

It's a great privilege for me to be with you today and to have the opportunity to introduce at his first event, on his first full day, the new President of the United States, Donald Trump.  (Applause.) 

As you can imagine, it's deeply humbling for my family and I to find ourselves in this role.  I'm grateful to our new President for the opportunity he's given me and the opportunity the American people have given us to serve.  But it's especially humbling for me to be before all of you today -- men and women of character, who have sacrificed greatly -- and to stand before this hallowed wall, this memorial wall, where we remember 117 who paid the ultimate sacrifice for our freedom.

I can assure you this new President and our entire team recognizes and appreciates the sacrifices of all of the men and women of the intelligence community of the United States of America.  (Applause.) 

I've gotten to know our new President.  We traveled a lot together.  When the cameras are off and the -- lights are off, I'll tell you two things I know for sure.  Number one, I've never met anyone more dedicated to the safety and security of the people of the United States of America, or anyone who is a greater strategic thinker about how we accomplish that for this nation.  In fact, to understand the life of our new President is -- his whole life was strategy.  He built an extraordinary success in the private sector, and I know he's going to make America safe again.  (Applause.) 

And lastly, I can honestly tell you, for all my years serving in the Congress, serving as governor of my home state, traveling cross-country and seeing the connection that he's made to men and women who serve and protect in every capacity in this country, I've never met anyone with a greater heart for those who every day, in diverse ways, protect the people of this nation through their character and their service and their sacrifice. 

And so let me say, it is my high honor and distinct privilege to introduce all of you the President of the United States.  (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, I want to thank everybody.  Very, very special people.  And it is true, this is my first stop, officially.  We're not talking about the balls, or we're not talking about even the speeches -- although they did treat me nicely on that speech yesterday.  (Laughter.)  I always call them the dishonest media, but they treated me nicely.  (Laughter.) 

But I want to say that there is nobody that feels stronger about the intelligence community and the CIA than Donald Trump.  There's nobody.  (Applause.) 

The wall behind me is very, very special.  We've been touring for quite a while, and I'll tell you what -- 29?  I can't believe it.

AUDIENCE MEMBER:  Twenty-eight.

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Oh, 28.  We got to reduce it.  That's amazing.  And we really appreciate what you've done in terms of showing us something very special.  And your whole group, these are really special, amazing people.  Very, very few people could do the job you people do.  And I want to just let you know, I am so behind you.  And I know maybe sometimes you haven’t gotten the backing that you've wanted, and you're going to get so much backing.  Maybe you're going to say, please don’t give us so much backing.  (Laughter.)  Mr. President, please, we don’t need that much backing.  (Laughter.)  But you're going to have that.  And I think everybody in this room knows it.

You know, the military and the law enforcement, generally speaking, but all of it -- but the military gave us tremendous percentages of votes.  We were unbelievably successful in the election with getting the vote of the military.  And probably almost everybody in this room voted for me, but I will not ask you to raise your hands if you did.  (Laughter.)  But I would guarantee a big portion, because we're all on the same wavelength, folks.  (Applause.)  We're all on the same wavelength, right?  He knows.  It took Brian about 30 seconds to figure that one out, right, because we know we're on the same wavelength.

But we're going to do great things.  We're going to do great things.  We've been fighting these wars for longer than any wars we've ever fought.  We have not used the real abilities that we have.  We've been restrained.  We have to get rid of ISIS.  Have to get rid of ISIS.  We have no choice.  (Applause.)  Radical Islamic terrorism.  And I said it yesterday -- it has to be eradicated just off the face of the Earth.  This is evil.  This is evil.  And you know, I can understand the other side.  We can all understand the other side.  There can be wars between countries, there can be wars.  You can understand what happened.  This is something nobody can even understand.  This is a level of evil that we haven’t seen.  And you're going to go to it, and you're going to do a phenomenal job.  But we're going to end it.  It's time.  It's time right now to end it.

You have somebody coming on who is extraordinary.  For the different positions of "Secretary of This" and "Secretary of That" and all of these great positions, I'd see five, six, seven, eight people.  And we had a great transition.  We had an amazing team of talent.  And, by the way, General Flynn is right over here.  Put up your hand.  What a good guy.  (Applause.)  And Reince and my whole group.  Reince -- you know -- they don’t care about Reince.  He's like this political guy that turned out to be a superstar, right?  We don’t have to talk about Reince.

But we did -- we had such a tremendous, tremendous success.  So when I'm interviewing all of these candidates that Reince and his whole group is putting in front, it went very, very quickly, and, in this case, went so quickly -- because I would see six or seven or eight for Secretary of Agriculture, who we just named the other day, Sonny Perdue, former governor of Georgia.  Fantastic guy.  But I'd see six, seven, eight people for a certain position.  Everybody wanted it. 

But I met Mike Pompeo, and it was the only guy I met.  I didn’t want to meet anybody else.  I said, cancel everybody else.  Cancel.  Now, he was approved, essentially, but they're doing little political games with me.  He was one of the three.  Now, last night, as you know, General Mattis, fantastic guy, and General Kelly got approved.  (Applause.)  And Mike Pompeo was supposed to be in that group.  It was going to be the three of them.  Can you imagine all of these guys?  People respect -- you know, they respect that military sense.  All my political people, they're not doing so well.  The political people aren’t doing so well but you.  We're going to get them all through, but some will take a little bit longer than others. 

But Mike was literally -- I had a group of -- what, we had nine different people?  Now, I must say, I didn’t mind cancelling eight appointments.  That wasn’t the worst thing in the world.  But I met him and I said, he is so good.  Number one in his class at West Point. 

Now, I know a lot about West Point.  I'm a person that very strongly believes in academics.  In fact, every time I say I had an uncle who was a great professor at MIT for 35 years who did a fantastic job in so many different ways, academically -- was an academic genius -- and then they say, is Donald Trump an intellectual?  Trust me, I'm like a smart persona.  (Laughter.)  And I recognized immediately.  So he was number one at West Point, and he was also essentially number one at Harvard Law School.  And then he decided to go into the military.  And he ran for Congress.  And everything he's done has been a homerun.  People like him, but much more importantly to me, everybody respects him.  And when I told Paul Ryan that I wanted to do this, I would say he may be the only person that was not totally thrilled -- right, Mike?  Because he said, I don’t want to lose this guy. 

But you will be getting a total star.  You're going to be getting a total gem.  He's a gem.  (Applause.)  You'll see.  You'll see.  And many of you know him anyway.  But you're going to see.  And again, we have some great people going in.  But this one is something -- is going to be very special, because this is one, if I had to name the most important, this would certainly be perhaps -- you know, in certain ways, you could say my most important.  You do the job like everybody in this room is capable of doing.  And the generals are wonderful, and the fighting is wonderful.  But if you give them the right direction, boy, does the fighting become easier.  And, boy, do we lose so fewer lives, and win so quickly.  And that's what we have to do.  We have to start winning again.

You know, when I was young and when I was -- of course, I feel young.  I feel like I'm 30, 35, 39.  (Laughter.)  Somebody said, are you young?  I said, I think I'm young.  You know, I was stopping -- when we were in the final month of that campaign, four stops, five stops, seven stops.  Speeches, speeches, in front of 25,000, 30,000 people, 15,000, 19,000 from stop to stop.  I feel young.

When I was young -- and I think we're all sort of young.  When I was young, we were always winning things in this country.  We'd win with trade.  We'd win with wars.  At a certain age, I remember hearing from one of my instructors, "The United States has never lost a war."  And then, after that, it's like we haven’t won anything.  We don’t win anymore.  The old expression, "to the victor belong the spoils" -- you remember.  I always used to say, keep the oil.  I wasn’t a fan of Iraq.  I didn’t want to go into Iraq.  But I will tell you, when we were in, we got out wrong.  And I always said, in addition to that, keep the oil.  Now, I said it for economic reasons.  But if you think about it, Mike, if we kept the oil you probably wouldn’t have ISIS because that's where they made their money in the first place.  So we should have kept the oil.  But okay.  (Laughter.)  Maybe you'll have another chance.  But the fact is, should have kept the oil. 

I believe that this group is going to be one of the most important groups in this country toward making us safe, toward making us winners again, toward ending all of the problems.  We have so many problems that are interrelated that we don’t even think of, but interrelated to the kind of havoc and fear that this sick group of people has caused.  So I can only say that I am with you 1,000 percent. 

And the reason you're my first stop is that, as you know, I have a running war with the media.  They are among the most dishonest human beings on Earth.  (Laughter and applause.)  And they sort of made it sound like I had a feud with the intelligence community.  And I just want to let you know, the reason you're the number-one stop is exactly the opposite -- exactly.  And they understand that, too. 

And I was explaining about the numbers.  We did a thing yesterday at the speech.  Did everybody like the speech?  (Applause.)  I've been given good reviews.  But we had a massive field of people.  You saw them.  Packed.  I get up this morning, I turn on one of the networks, and they show an empty field.  I say, wait a minute, I made a speech.  I looked out, the field was -- it looked like a million, million and a half people.  They showed a field where there were practically nobody standing there.  And they said, Donald Trump did not draw well.  I said, it was almost raining, the rain should have scared them away, but God looked down and he said, we're not going to let it rain on your speech. 

In fact, when I first started, I said, oh, no.  The first line, I got hit by a couple of drops.  And I said, oh, this is too bad, but we'll go right through it.  But the truth is that it stopped immediately.  It was amazing.  And then it became really sunny.  And then I walked off and it poured right after I left.  It poured.  But, you know, we have something that's amazing because we had -- it looked -- honestly, it looked like a million and a half people.  Whatever it was, it was.  But it went all the way back to the Washington Monument.  And I turn on -- and by mistake I get this network, and it showed an empty field.  And it said we drew 250,000 people.  Now, that's not bad, but it's a lie.  We had 250,000 people literally around -- you know, in the little bowl that we constructed.  That was 250,000 people.  The rest of the 20-block area, all the way back to the Washington Monument, was packed.  So we caught them, and we caught them in a beauty.  And I think they're going to pay a big price. 

We had another one yesterday, which was interesting.  In the Oval Office there's a beautiful statue of Dr. Martin Luther King.  And I also happen to like Churchill, Winston Churchill.  I think most of us like Churchill.  He doesn’t come from our country, but had a lot to do with it.  Helped us; real ally.  And, as you know, the Churchill statue was taken out -- the bust.  And as you also probably have read, the Prime Minister is coming over to our country very shortly.  And they wanted to know whether or not I'd like it back.  I say, absolutely, but in the meantime we have a bust of Churchill. 

So a reporter for Time magazine -- and I have been on there cover, like, 14 or 15 times.  I think we have the all-time record in the history of Time Magazine.  Like, if Tom Brady is on the cover, it's one time, because he won the Super Bowl or something, right?  (Laughter.)  I've been on it for 15 times this year.  I don’t think that's a record, Mike, that can ever be broken.  Do you agree with that?  What do you think? 

But I will say that they said -- it was very interesting -- that Donald Trump took down the bust, the statue, of Dr. Martin Luther King.  And it was right there.  But there was a cameraman that was in front of it.  (Laughter.)  So Zeke -- Zeke from Time Magazine writes a story about I took down.  I would never do that because I have great respect for Dr. Martin Luther King.  But this is how dishonest the media is.

Now, the big story -- the retraction was, like, where?  Was it a line?  Or do they even bother putting it in?  So I only like to say that because I love honesty.  I like honest reporting. 

I will tell you, final time -- although I will say it, when you let in your thousands of other people that have been trying to come in -- because I am coming back -- we're going to have to get you a larger room.  (Applause.)  We may have to get you a larger room.  You know?  And maybe, maybe, it will be built by somebody that knows how to build, and we won't have columns.  (Laughter.)  You understand that?  (Applause.)  We get rid of the columns.

No, I just wanted to really say that I love you, I respect you.  There's nobody I respect more.  You're going to do a fantastic job.  And we're going to start winning again, and you're going to be leading the charge. 

So thank you all very much.  (Applause.)  Thank you -- you're beautiful.  Thank you all very much.  Have a good time.  I'll be back.  I'll be back.  Thank you.

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Davos 2017 - A Conversation with Henry Kissinger on the World in 2017  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Apjzjsa8AIg

 

A Conversation With George Soros at Davos 2017  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cz3MTcEqJ54

 

Lawrence Summers on the Risks of Donald Trump

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cV9Zo-KWg8k

 

Davos 2017 - Responsive and Responsible Leadership in 2017

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WYwV988mskE

 

 Davos 2017 - Can Women Have It All

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrwB6EvV52U

 

 

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